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COURT ORDERS OAKLAND TO HIRE BLACK FIREMEN
(Oakland, Calif.) - Alameda County Superior Judge Robert K. Barber ordered the city of Oakland to hire new fire department personnel at a ratio of two from racial minorities to every White, over the next five years. At the same time the city must promote at least one minority person for every five Whites promoted in the fire department.
The following day, August 29, Deputy City Manager Gerald E. Newfarmer said the fire department "should have little trouble meeting the new standards," and that the department probably will ask the city to promptly start hiring firemen to fill the 38 vacancies which now exist.
The ruling by Judge Barber came in a lawsuit by the Oakland Black Firefighters Association and six minority individuals. The court found there had been discrimination in hiring and promotional practices, in standards and tests for hiring of minorities.
Judge Barber issued a writ commanding the creation of a civil service list for fire fighters set up "only by validated requirements and tests that comply with the Fair Employment Practices Commission guidelines on employee selection procedures."
The city is to promote only by requirements and procedures, Judge Barber said, and these must comply with his ruling -- and with validated tests. The judge retains jurisdiction to award damages to other members of the class of minorities, according to proof, after review of the effects of the provisions of the order relating to preferential hiring.
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Three weeks ago, in response to administrative complaints submitted by Oakland's Black policemen and firemen, the federal government confirmed widescale discrimination against women, Blacks and other minorities in the police, fire and public works departments.
On that occasion, the U.S. government gave these departments 60 days to prepare and submit a corrective plan, or face the possibility of loss of federal funds. The order was contained in a letter to Oakland Mayor John H. Reading from Graham W. Watt, director of the Office of Revenue Sharing in the U.S. Treasury Department.
Specifically, Judge Barber ruled that both the written and physical agility tests used by the department discriminated against racial minorities but that the oral tests did not. The burden was on the city to show that the tests are valid and job-related, the court said, adding that the city had "wholly failed" to do so.
The ruling came in a lawsuit filed about a year ago by the Oakland Black Firefighters Association and six individuals. Judge Barber issued an injunction May 1, which has prevented any hiring or promotions by the department pending his decision in the case.
Battalion Chief Samuel Golden, Oakland's highest ranking Black fireman and a regional vice president of the International Association of Black Professional Fire Fighters, said, "I am pleased with the ruling and I think the organization is pleased with it. The next step is up to the city."
Brother Golden said the Oakland Black Firefighters, who number about 90, soon will file suit against the union which represents all Oakland firemen. Firefighters' Local No. 55 hired an attorney to aid the city in the lawsuit, Golden said, and levied a $30 assessment against all its members, including those in Piedmont, Emeryville and San Leandro, to help pay the legal costs.
Golden said he, as an individual, and the Black Firefighters already have filed a complaint against Local 55's action with the federal Equal Employment Opportunities Commission.
The court decision found that today's fire department has 622 male firefighters, of which 63 are Black -- 10.13 per cent. "Inasmuch as racial minorities comprise approximately 51% of the city of Oakland," Judge Barber said, "it is readily apparent that their members are holding only a small fraction of the jobs with the department that they would be expected to hold if the department's personnel reflected the racial makeup of the entire population of the city."
"Of 260 promotional jobs within the department, 248 are held by Whites and 12 are held by Blacks. No other racial minority holds a promotional position."
The ruling stated: "The practices, devices and tests used by the respondents (the city) in the fire department have a great and adverse impact on minorities as do the entry level tests. The in-grade (or seniority) requirements of the department for promotion will further exacerbate (make more severe) the discrimination against minority personnel…"
"No credible evidence was offered by the respondents to establish that those requirements have any relation to job performance."
8501 E. 14th STREET
OAKLAND, CALIF. 94621
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EDITORIAL: FIREMEN WIN
After internal pressure by the Oakland Black Firefighters Association, external pressure from the Black community, legal actions, U.S. government investigations and threatening demands for change, the city of Oakland has declared it will move to correct a long established pattern of discrimination within the Oakland Fire Department.
Discrimination, in hiring, placement, promotion and day to day activity exists on all levels and in all spheres of public and private institutions in Oakland, and, indeed, throughout the country. Black people are primary victims of racist discrimination. The success of the Black Firefighters Association fight should be an example to all of us.
The Oakland Black Officers Association, in conjunction with the Community Coalition Against Racism in Oakland, is launching a combined assault on racism and discrimination within the Oakland Police Department. As a result, despite efforts on the part of the Oakland City Council to belittle and discredit the effort, the U.S. government has ordered the Oakland Police Department to provide within 60 days a corrective plan aimed at ending racism and discrimination within that department.
In other words, an offense has been launched against racism and discrimination in these two departments of city government. The city power structure is on the defense, and despite its desire to do nothing, it is being forced to move to end these evils.
There is no defense against or justification for racism and racist discrimination. Few Americans take pride in being identified as racists. Most Americans wish to be thought of as not being racists. Consequently, when the facts of racism and discrimination are exposed for all to see, most Americans feel some measure of shame and guilt, and many feel compelled to act for positive change.
It was the Black firemen and the Black policemen organized and working in conjunction with the Black community doing their step by step homework well, that made possible these beginning steps toward an end to racism and discrimination in their department. Every other city department, every other public or private institution can be handled likewise. This is Black leadership in action. This is the Power of the People in action.
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Letters to the Editor
Wake Up Black America
Greetings, Black people of America. I and all the select members of my group who are all Muslims enjoy reading the "Truth" which you so devoutly print in The Black Panther. I would like to congratulate you and your staff for trying to wake up Black America and make Black people help themselves and also help others. We all have to unite or we will not survive in the long run, The judicial system and political structures are corrupt all the way up to Washington, D.C., and yet, many Black people do not think that this problem concerns them or their future. I cannot participate in any movement to help Black people or even my Black self right now. But I can still write letters to organizations and other people to encourage them on for the fight for freedom.
Please, people of America, help in the fight for Huey P. Newton, for he and his philosophy of life in America are real and true.
I am regretfully sorry and somewhat ashamed to say that I do not receive The Black Panther newspaper under my name and number because I have been confined under close supervision. I am incarcerated in this prison on a trumped-up charge of manslaughter.
My original charge was first degree murder. I was only guilty of being in the wrong town at the wrong time, nothing more. But by me being a Black Revolutionary. I was jammed and could not come out of the jam. I was even tried and hung by jury. But the judge would not release me. They (the courts) wanted to try me again. I spent over $14,000 trying to obtain freedom, but all I obtained was a sentence of four to 25 years.
Thank you for your time and your good work.
Arthur Hill "Harassed" In N.C.
I am writing to you for my brother, Corporal Arthur Hill, who is stationed at Cherry Point, North Carolina. He is subject to "undue harassment" because of his work in the legal office. He helps people who are not aware of the law.
The reason for my writing is to let you know and hopefully the rest of the country to know what is happening: Thank you.
Melvin LeRoye Hill
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COMMENT: U.S. Training “Political” Assassins
The following is excerpted from an article which appeared in the July 6, 1975, issue of the London Sunday Times. The article confirms that the U.S. is actively recruiting and training "political" assassins -- many of them convicted murderers from military prisons -- to kill people considered to be enemies to U.S. interests abroad. The article details the extensive, vicious, psychological conditioning which turns people into cold-blooded murderers.
The controversy over whether the U.S. government has ever made use of "political assassinations" seems certain to take a new turn after a remarkable disclosure by an officer in the U.S. Navy. In the course of a conversation during a NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) sponsored conference in Olso, it was said that the U.S. Navy has been seeking out convicted murderers for retraining in a "political" role. The suggestion was supported by details of this training which, if they are true, might have been taken from the screenplay of Kubrick's film, A Clockwork Orange.
The details come from Lieutenant Commander Thomas Narut, a psychologist working at the U.S. naval hospital in Naples. He was attending a NATO conference held in a hotel near Oslo at which about 120 scientists, including five from Britain, exchanged information on psychological research designed to help people in tough jobs -- especially soldiers -- to cope with stress.
Dr. Narut's story was later categorically denied -- but no explanation was offered why a Navy officer should or could volunteer the detailed descriptions he did…
Dr. Narut's naval work involved establishing how to induce servicemen who may not be naturally inclined to kill, to do so under certain conditions. When pressed afterwards as to what was meant by "combat, readiness units," he
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explained this included men for commando-type operations and -- so he said -- for insertion into U.S. embassies under cover, ready to kill in those countries should the need arise. Dr. Narut used the word "hitmen" and "assassin" of these men.
The method, according to Dr. Narut, was to show films specially designed to show people being killed and injured in violent ways. By being acclimatized (conditioned) through these films, the men eventually became able to dissociate any feelings from the situation.
Dr. Narut also added that U.S. naval psychologists specially selected men for these commando tasks from submarine crews, paratroops, and some were convicted murderers from military prisons. Asked whether he was suggesting that murderers were being released from prisons to become assassins, he replied: "It's happened more than once."
Later in private conversation with Pete Watson, Dr. Narut described the training in which he had been involved. It had, he said, been in three phases:
Selection: Research on those given awards for valor in battle has shown, said Narut, that the best killers are men with "passive aggressive" personalities. They are people with a lot of drive -- though they are well disciplined and do not appear nervous -- who periodically experience bursts of explosive energy when they can literally kill without remorse.
Dr. Narut says he and his colleagues have, therefore, been looking for men who have either shown themselves capable of killing in this premeditated way (in Vietnam perhaps, or in a murder in the barracks) or whom the Navy's tests show as potentially capable of it…
Stress reduction training: The men selected are brought either to the navy's neuropsychiatric laboratory in San Diego, California (which also trains spies in techniques to counter interrogation), or to the laboratory where Narut works in the U.S. naval medical center in Naples. They are first taught to shoot, and then the Clockwork Orange training begins in earnest, to rid them of all qualms they may have about killing.
According to Dr. Narut, men are shown a series of special films "to heighten their dissociative powers with regard to killing." The films are gruesome and as the training proceeds they get progressively more horrific. Even so the trainee is forced to watch. His head is bolted into a calmp so that he cannot turn away and a special mechanism also ensures that he cannot close his eyelids.
Dehumanization of the enemy; In this last phase, the idea is to get the men to think of the potential enemies they will have to face as inferior forms of human life. They get lectures and films now which portray personalities and customs in foreign countries whose interests may go against the U.S. But the lectures are specially biased to present the "enemy" as less than human: the stupidity of local customs is ridiculed, local personalities may be presented as evil demigods rather than legitimate political figures.
The process, according to Dr. Narut, takes a few weeks and the men are passed on. He refused to say where the men went, arguing that he did not have the necessary security clearance…
The Pentagon in Washington denied categorically that the U.S. Navy has ever "engaged in psychological training or other types of training of personnel as assassins."
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GARRY EXPOSES COVER-UP: “George Jackson Set -- Up Sparked San Quentin
(San Rafael, Calif.) - Astute people's attorney Charles R. Garry, defending Black Panther Party member Johnny Larry Spain in the San Quentin 6 frame-up trial here, last week exposed a key prosecution attempt to cover up the assassination of author/revolutionary George Jackson on August 21, 1971, at San Quentin Prison.
Attorney Garry's discovery came during his cross-examination of a Black San Quentin visiting room guard named Fleming.
According to the transcript of a taped statement made following the 1971 incident, Fleming says that he "thinks" he checked George Jackson's hair after the visit with Steven Bingham (now a fugitive in the San Quentin 6 case), on that day.
Not satisfied with the state's prepared transcript, attorney Garry went back to the original tape Fleming made. On that tape Fleming clearly and distinctly says, "I think, I KNOW, I checked George's hair, "following the visit.
Fleming's statement is crucial since the prosecution is asserting that Bingham smuggled George Jackson a gun during the visit, which Brother George then placed under an Afro-wig before calmly walking back to the Adjustment Center.
The defense, as outlined by attorney Garry in his brilliant opening statement, charges that the state set-up and cold-bloodedly murdered the celebrated Field Marshal of the Black Panther Party.
Part 5 of Garry's opening statement follows.
"Officer Krasenes had a .45 gun in his hip pocket on that afternoon. You heard the statement of Mr. Herman that the officers are not permitted any weapons, and yet you will see switchblades and other types of weapons that these officers had on their person.
"You will see that of all of what we are talking about, we have only one gun that's been presented to you, and that's that 9 millimeter Astra. That's the only weapon that's been presented to you.
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"You heard it said that Mr. Spain had a revolver, and that Officer Hampton saw the revolver -- not an automatic, but a revolver, and when he was quizzed at the time his statement was taken and he was asked if he was positive about that, he said, "I'm very positive."
"I am just throwing these out because I want you to think about it while I'm talking about it.
"Officer Krasenes had a weapon; allegedly, Mr. Spain had a revolver in his hand, but all we have is one weapon that's been presented to you. Now the entire area is in complete control of the guards and the correctional officers, and yet we've only been presented with one weapon.
"I believe this is a good time to stop, your Honor."
THE COURT: "All right, are you going to continue your opening statement in the afternoon?"
MR. GARRY: "Yes, your Honor."
THE COURT: "We will take our recess.
"We will recess until 1:30, ladies and gentlemen. You admonished not to discuss the case with anyone or permit anyone to discuss it will you."
THE COURT: "Good afternoon, ladies and gentlemen. Mr. Garry?"
MR. GARRY: "Yes, your Honor.
"I want to talk briefly about George Jackson and August 21, 1971. You've heard the prosecutor tell you that Mr. Jackson wanted to know if he had a visitor on Saturday. The evidence will show, as the evidence unfolds, that many of the inmates looked forward to visits, and especially if a person is going to go on trial in a day or two, they are very anxious to be able to have visits from their attorneys or investigators or a friend.
"The evidence that's been told to you, that's involved in this case by the prosecution, talks about Vanita Anderson having in her possession a briefcase or a bag of some kind and a tape recorder in it. There is no evidence that Mr. Bingham eyen knew Miss Anderson. We have no evidence as to who Vanita Anderson is. If Vanita Anderson is the one who brought this attache bag or attache case with a tape recorder in it, she has never been indicted, she's never been joined in this case. We've had no discovery as to anybody ever talking to her.
"I went you to be evaluating this evidence as it unfolds. But more important than anything else, the, evidence is going to show you very clearly that the man at the gate, the gate where they inspect everybody that comes in and searches everybody -- Mr. Betts is a veteran. He examined, the evidence will show, the tape recorder thoroughly.
As a matter of fact, he examined the tape recorder by opening up the batteries. He saw the batteries. He's an expert in this field -- the evidence will show -- in this field of studying tape recorders and working with tape recorders. There will be no way in the world physically, the evidence will show, that this 9 millimeter Astra automatic, with the clips and everything else, could be put in that tape recorder.
"Now how about the attache case? Again, we are dealing with a person who is alert, and particularly, the evidence will show, he was alert on this particular day, because the minute he found out that Miss Anderson was going to George Jackson, or she was an investigator for George jackson, he became that much more alert.
"The evidence will prove that, will show that.
"And the reason that he was alert on this is because some two or three weeks before that, before this incident on August 21st, the evidence will show that one of the families of George Jackson, one of the youngsters, came in with a toy gun; so that according to Mr. Betts himself he was very much on the alert.
"Now, the prosecution apparently no longer talks about putting the gun in the tape recorder. But now there are insinuations, from what was told to you -- indicating that perhaps there was a false bottom on this attache case. The evidence will show that Mr. Betts remembers the measurement of the attache case, knows how high it was, how thick the substance was, how deep it was and how wide it was.
"And you have every reason to believe, and the evidence will clearly point this out, that he examined this attache case very, very carefully, and it's very, very clear that he could have determined, with the simplest form of examination, whether there was a false bottom in this attache case or not.
"Now the reason that I am mentioning this to you is that I think the evidence will show that this business of Bingham bringing something in to George Jackson, or that Vanita Anderson brought something in to George Jackson for gave it to Mr. Bingham, is a smokescreen.
"The evidence will show that it's much more likely, logical, to take the testimony of the inmate who was between gates at the time that Mr. Krasenes came in and who saw the butt of what he thought was a .45 gun. A .45. The butt of a .45 is similar and looks similar to this 9 millimeter Astra. And you will be able to see that that's the case.
"Since there's been only one gun produced in this case, the defense position is that Krasenes' gun that he had in his pocket is the so-called 9 millimeter gun. I have no way of proving this, except that we are dealing with inferences and circumstances, and that is just as logical, the evidence will show, as anything else.
TO BE CONTINUED
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AUTHORITIES THREATEN TO BAR SPECTATORS FROM SAN QUENTIN 6 TRIAL: Conflict With
State Over Pay For “Security” Personnel
(San Rafael, Calif.) - Marin County supervisors are threatening to close the San Quentin 6 trial to spectators behind the excuse that the county, the second richest per capita (per person) in the country, foots the bill for the army of "security" personnel. They demand that the state of California should pay the bill.
Last week an unnamed state auditor refused to pay a total of $10,000 in overtime for Marin sheriff deputies working on the "security" detail during the San Quentin 6 trial, and Marin County supervisors called on the district attorney to stop prosecuting crimes at San Quentin Prison until the state agrees to pay the costs of courtroom "security."
District Attorney Bruce Bales refused and the supervisors suggested that it's time to kick the 124-year old San Quentin Prison out of Marin County. County counsel Douglas J. Maloney reportedly said there might be a way to "de-annex" San Quentin Prison.
Since courtroom activities of the San Quentin 6 trial began, Marin County deputies have operated an elaborate screening and identification process for all spectators. These include two metal detectors, an identity check, photographs, hand searches for males, females and children and two guards at all times in the spectators section.
In addition, a plexiglass barrier was constructed separating the spectators from the courtroom procedures, requiring a redesigning of the courtroom. As well, a large number of sheriff's deputies are situated at all times inside the courtroom with the six defendants, their counsel, prosecuting counsel, jury, stenos and judge.
The courtroom used for the San Quentin 6 trial is the same one from which George Jackson's brother Jonathan executed a desperate thrust for freedom on August 7, 1970, resulting in his death and the death of two inmates and a judge.
Marin County Board of Supervisors chairman Gary Giacomini, reacting to the state attorney general's written opinion that overtime for the security details should be paid by Marin County, said that if the money isn't paid to Marin within a week, "We'll do what we can to close our doors to San Quentin trials."
Other supervisors have put forward the suggestion that the entire security problem be eliminated by closing the doors of the courtroom to spectators, in clear violation of the Constitutional guarantee of a free and open trial.
CAN'T DO THAT
The immediate reaction of observers to this last suggestion was, "But they can't do that. It's against the Constitution!" These observers were warned, however, they will do it unless action is taken to expose this danger and bring public pressure to bear to prevent them from doing it.
Visitors to the San Quentin 6 trial repeatedly come away with the overwhelming feeling that everything is being done to intimidate and frighten spectators. The careful identity check, including the taking of individual pictures of everyone who enters the courtroom as a spectator, has already intimidated many from coming to attend the trial.
Every obstacle seems to be placed in the way to discourage visitors. Continuing protests against the manner in which five of
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the San Quentin 6 are chained and bolted to the floor in their seats has exposed the cruel and unjust way the jury is conditioned in its attitudes towards the defendants.
Informed sources told THE BLACK PANTHER that the threat to close the courtroom to spectators is a serious one. The prosecution has already begun to falter and the court's judge is daily exposed as unfair toward the lawyers for the defense in his behavior in the courtroom.
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September 4, 1969
On the morning of July 14, 1969, Comrade Larry Roberson stopped to investigate some racist Chicago police -- which is a dangerous act in Chicago -- who were harassing a group of elderly Black people. An argument arose and without hesitation the police pulled their guns and started shooting. Larry was critically wounded in the stomach, thigh and leg but was able to wound two of his assailants. Larry was taken to Cook County Hospital where he was periodically harassed, threatened and beaten by police.
Comrade Larry Roberson died of his wounds in Cook County Hospital on September 4, 1969. Larry placed himself between the oppressor and the people. In the words of Fred Hampton, Larry was "too revolutionary proletarian intoxicated to be astronomically intimidated." Long live the spirit of Comrade Larry Roberson!
ALL POWER TO THE PEOPLE
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Youth Workers Honored At Community Forum
(Oakland, Calif.) - A Day of Appreciation was the theme for last Sunday's Community Forum. It was a day dedicated to the summer youth workers from the Special Program for Economically Disadvantaged Youth (SPEDY) and the Oakland Youth Work Experience Program (OWEP) who have been working diligently at the Oakland Community Learning Center over the summer.
Entertainment was provided by the COSMOS TRAVELERS, a dance group, and EAST BAY ENTERPRISERS band. Both groups put on excellent performances and received a rousing and warm response from their audience.
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THIS WEEK IN BLACK HISTORY
September 1 & 4, 1875
Earning a notoriety as one of the most racist and backward states in the country, Mississippi experienced two severe racial conflicts only three days apart. The first occurred in Yazoo City, on September 1, 1875, when 10 to 20 Blacks were killed. The second racial conflict took place on September 4, with 20 to 80 Black leaders and Black Republicans killed in Clinton.
September 8, 1875
As the "Reconstruction" period of unprecedented economic and political rights for Blacks came to an end, Whites used increasingly violent means to undermine the rights of Black people. The situation became so serious in the state of Mississippi that on September 8, 1875, the governor requested federal troops to protect the rights of Black voters. However, the request was refused.
September 8, 1925
Ossian Sweet, a prominent Black doctor in Detroit, and others were arrested on September 8, 1925, on murder charges stemming from the self-defense act of firing into a White mob assembled in front of the Sweet residence in a previously all-White neighborhood. Dr. Sweet was defended by Clarence Darrow who won an acquittal in the second trial.
September 6, 1967
On September 6, 1967, the late President Lyndon B. Johnson named Walter Washington the first Black man to head the government of a major American city.
September 3-7, 1970
More than 2,500 Blacks from four continents convened in Atlanta, Georgia, to the first Congress of African People from September 3-7, 1970. Delegations from 27 African countries, the Caribbean nations, four South American countries, Australia and the U.S. assembled on the campus of Atlanta University to hear the conference's leadership explain the concepts of "nation building" and "Pan Africanism."
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Cop Murder Eyewitness Arrested On Perjury Charges
(Milwaukee, Wisc.) - Ola Mae Davis, who testified in a coroner's inquest into the shooting of Jerry Brookshire, was arraigned on perjury charges on August 18. Mrs. Davis said at the April 4 inquest that she saw police Patrolman Raymond L. Marlow shoot Brookshire, a 17-year-old Black youth as he (Brookshire) leaned against a fence during an incident last Christmas Eve.
Mrs. Davis has steadfastly stuck to the truth of the incident, in spite of continuing harassment by local authorities. In addition to her arraignment on perjury charges, Mrs. Davis is slated to face trial December 9 on charges of welfare fraud.
Circuit Court Judge Christ T. Seraphim set bail at $1,500 for Mrs. Davis and set a date for a preliminary hearing.
Seventeen uniformed sheriff's deputies were present in the crowded courtroom to ensure that there was no "disturbance" during the arraignment.
Mrs. Davis did not know that a charge was being considered until she went to a local legal aid office for help in a family matter. She was denied help until the perjury question was settled.
Black Alderman Orville E. Pitts, chairman of the Committee of 21, a citizens' group formed in response to recent slayings of Blacks by police, urged community support of Mrs. Davis and vouched for her truthfulness.
A neighbor of Mrs. Davis, Cecilia Pugh, testified during the inquest that she and Sister Davis were shopping when the incident took place and that therefore Mrs. Davis could not have witnessed the shooting.
Pitts said after the inquest that Ms. Pugh had not contradicted Mrs. Davis story during a meeting of the three in his office before the inquest. He also remarked that he felt the perjury charge was not only unjustified but might also stop other citizens from reporting crimes for fear they might face perjury charges if the accounts they gave in court were not upheld.
"There are two sides to every story," Pitts said.
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JoANNE LITTLE PROMISES TO RETURN TO OAKLAND
(Oakland, Calif.) - JoAnne Little, the 21-year-old Black woman whose celebrated self-defense-against-rape case ended in acquittal on manslaughter and second-degree murder charges, left Oakland on Friday night, August 29, with a promise that she would be back soon.
JoAnne came to Oakland only days after her victorious acquittal to personally thank the Black Panther Party for its role in mobilizing the people's power in her defense. She repeatedly declared to the press and in a number of personal apperances in Oakland and the Bay Area, that she owed her freedom to the power of the people.
JoAnne was accompanied on her trip to Oakland by Larry Little, spokesperson of the national JoAnne Little Defense Committee and coordinator of the Winston-Salem Chapter of the Black Panther Party. Larry Little and the Winston-Salem Chapter of the Black Panther Party were responsible for mobilizing North Carolina around JoAnne's case from the beginning, and making possible exposure of the case to national and world consciousness.
JoAnne was scheduled to return to North Carolina immediately following the Victory Rally held in Oakland Auditorium on Sunday, August 24. However, her reception here, her desire to personally meet and talk with Black Panther Party members and community leaders and to observe in action Black Panther Party and other community activities in the area caused her to repeatedly postpone her departure.
JoAnne faces an appeal hearing on a previous conviction on September 23. She is also scheduled to make some East Coast appearances and to appear on the Mike Douglas show out of Philadelphia, prior to the court appearance.
On Monday evening, JoAnne and Larry were guests at a party given for them by the Black Panther Party. On the occasion JoAnne and Larry were presented with a number of gifts from the Black Panther Party, including framed portraits of Huey P. Newton, an original painting by Party artist and long-time leading member Emory Douglas, autographed copies of Insights and Poems by Huey P. Newton and Ericka Huggins, director of the Oakland Community School and autographed copies of …And Bid Him Sing, a recently published novel by David G. Du Bois, Party spokesperson and editor-in-chief of THE BLACK PANTHER Intercommunal News Service.
Among community activities visited by JoAnne and Larry during the week were the People's Free Medical Clinic, an activity of the Seniors Against a Fearful Environment (S.A.F.E.) Program, editorial offices of THE BLACK PANTHER and the Center for Independent Living (a program of activity for paraplegics, quadraplegics and the blind) in Berkeley.
JoAnne and Larry also visited the Alameda County Jail here to see the talk with George Robinson, a member of the Black Panther Party facing a trumped-up charge of murder.
During the week JoAnne and Larry held a special press conference for the Black media and Blacks working in the establishment media in the Bay Area. (See centerfold.) The press conference was well attended, informal and exhaustive.
An automobile tour around the city of San Francisco, with special attention to the Fillmore and Hunters Point communities, included a visit to Sausalito and Chinatown. During the evenings JoAnne and Larry paid visits to several popular nightspots in Oakland where they met and talked with Oakland residents in a relaxed and congenial atmosphere.
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Tom Hayden Attends San Quentin 6 Trial
(San Rafael, Calif.) - Tom Hayden, long-time radical political activist and currently Democratic candidate for the U.S. Senate from California, attended a session of the San Quentin 6 trial here on August 29. Hayden attended the trial to demonstrate his support for the six Black and Brown prison activists on trial at the Marin County courthouse for their alleged participation in a conspiracy which led to the assassination of Black Panther Party Field Marshal George Jackson at San Quentin Prison on August 21, 1971.
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NACOGDOCHES, TEXAS: RACIAL VIOLENCE “A RELIC OF THE PAST”
The following is the conclusion of a series of articles on the small east Texas community of Nacogdoches. In running this series, THE BLACK PANTHER has attempted to expose the racial injustices committed against the Black community of Nacogdoches, which make up 43 per cent of the town's population of 22,000.
We wish to thank Brother Arthur Weaver, head of the Nacogdoches NAACP, for providing us with the extensive documentation for this series.
(Nacogdoches, Tex.) - Despite the failure of repeated attempts to get aid from governmental agencies, the Black community here continues to struggle against the police brutality and harassment of local White police who are conspiring with White businessmen to deprive Black people of their Constitutional rights. As Brother Weaver says, "Police and White citizens work hand in hand to physically and financially maim the Black citizens."
One organization formed by Blacks to fight racism is the Nacogdoches County Voters League whose function is to counsel and provide guidance and aid to people in the Black community. One of the major goals of the Voters League is to organize Black people to support Black candidates for public office. The importance of supporting Black candidates was emphasized by Brother Weaver in a speech to the Voters League:
"…I think we should make a change…We have voted White all our life. We should make a change now and vote Black…I am appealing to all of you to start looking and checking and finding somebody we can campaign for in the Black race.
"If you want to run or you find somebody in your community or a friend of yours to run for office, don't worry about qualifications or being qualified. There is no such thing as being `not qualified …' We have campaigned for the Whites all our lives…and it is time for us to think of our own Black brothers and Black sisters. We can do a job for the people. We can do a better job than they (Whites) did in the past…"
The Nacogdoches County Voters League has been successful in electing a Black county commissioner, Brother Amos Henderson, Sr.
Another organization active in the Black community is the Nacogdoches Community Foundation. One of the main incidents leading to the formation of the Foundation was the treatment of Black children in the integrated schools of Nacogdoches. Black children are harassed, repeatedly called "nigger" by the White children and generally treated differently than the White children.
The Foundation filed several cases with the state Civil Rights Department and the Department of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW) and received a grant from HEW under the Emergency School Assistance Program to help Black children, parents and teachers adjust to the change brought on by integration.
The Foundation is operating a well functioning program but needs to expand its services in order to deal with other problems surrounding the learning habits of children: poor health, bad housing, poor diets, and lack of job opportunities after completion of school.
Summing up the situation for Black people in Nacogdoches, Brother Weaver wrote in a letter to THE BLACK PANTHER:
"We are living in a hell place. They are making bloody wars on my Black people…and treating them like dogs……"
The editorial in the August 11, 1975, issue of THE BLACK PANTHER stated:
"…what is happening in Nacogdoches represents a resurgence of racist violence against Black people in this country as a prelude to preparing the White majority population to support aggressive war against the people of the African continent…
"What is happening to the Black population of Nacogdoches …will happen to us all everywhere unless we raise our united, powerful and determined voices now as we raise our clenched fists … in defense of our survival."
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Black Police To Sue L.E.A.A.
(Oakland, Calif.) - The National Black Police Officers Association (NBPA), in a coordinated, national action will announce on Thursday, September 4, the filing of a suit against the U.S. Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA) on the grounds of discrimination against racial minorities and women.
Regional leaders of the NBPA in New York City, Philadelphia, New Orleans, Chicago and San Francisco will hold simultaneous press conferences to announce the action. The Region 5, West Coast, press conference will be conducted by Officer Raymond Clark, president of the Oakland Black Officers Association. See next week's issue of THE BLACK PANTHER for a full report.
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OUR HEALTH: Birth Control Pills And Heart Attacks
(Washington, D.C.) - Women who take birth control pills face an increased risk of heart attack, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently revealed in a drug bulletin mailed to the medical profession.
Among women over 40, the risk of death from heart attack appears to be more than four times as great for pill users as for nonusers, the FDA bulletin said.
The FDA's Obstetrics and Gynecology Advisory Committee has recommended that women over 40 be urged to use other forms of contraception. The labeling for birth control pills will be revised to reflect this recommendation.
According to the bulletin, two recent case studies made in Great Britain on coronary thrombosis (heart attack) compared the fate of one group of patients with another group, matched with the first for such circumstances as age, socio-economic status and physical condition. One study found that risk of nonfatal heart attacks among pill users between the ages of 30 and 39 is 2.7 times as great as the comparable risk among nonusers. For women in the 40 to 44 age group, the risk among users was put at 5.7 times that of nonusers.
The bulletin said the increased risk of heart attack among pill users could not be explained solely by the simultaneous presence of other risk factors such as high blood pressure, obesity, cigarette smoking and diabetes.
The average overall annual additional risk of developing a heart attack for all women taking oral contraceptives is about one per 1,000 users over the age of 40, the FDA bulletin said.
There was no indication from the bulletin whether the advisory committee expected the risk for a woman over 40 who stops using the pill to revert to the same level as that of a woman of comparable age who had never used the pill. It did indicate, however, that the women who discontinued taking the pill could expect some decrease in the risk of a heart attack.
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Attica Commemoration Demonstration To Be Held In Buffalo, New York
(Buffalo, N.Y.) - The political and legal workers of Attica Now/Attica Brothers Trial Office are sponsoring an Attica Commemoration demonstration here on September 13, 1975. It has been four hard years of struggle by these two organizations to defend the Attica survivors from the myriad of charges leveled by the state prosecutor's office.
We would like to reprint for our readers what is not only an appeal for funds to continue their dedicated work, but also a poignant and brilliant description of the repressive forces they have continued to battle to achieve justice for Attica inmates wrongfully charged. The text which follows will be placed in The New York Times as a full page ad on September 13.
"It has been four years since the uprising at Attica which ended with the state's bloody assault of September 13, 1971, leaving 43 murdered and countless injured.
"Not content with the lives taken in the recapture of the prison and with the `orgy of brutality' which ensued inside Attica in the succeeding days, weeks and months, the state of New York vindictively set out to bring a mass of criminal indictments blaming the prisoners for the bloodshed which horrified a nation.
"The prosecution of the Attica cases is without precedent in the history of this country. An entire division of lawyers and investigators from the state attorney general's office was assigned to the task, funded over the years to the tune of more than $10 million of the taxpayers' money. 'Despite this enormous allocation of resources, the special Attica prosecution has succeeded in obtaining only two guilty verdicts out of the 62 Brothers charged on 42 separate indictments. Dacajaweiah (a.k.a. John Hill) is serving a 20 to life sentence and Charley Joe Pernasilice was given a three-year sentence but is out on bond pending appeal. Twenty-one indictments have been dismissed for lack of evidence -- one dismissed in the middle of trial -- and three cases have resulted in the acquittal of five Brothers. Only the continuing resistance of the Attica Brothers, along with legal and political support from many defense workers and community people, has made these victories possible.
"The recent claims by a former Attica prosecutor, that state officials willfully set about to suppress evidence and manipulate the Special Attica Grand Juries, have served to further diminsh the legitimacy of our system of justice. Yet another special, state-funded investigation is now at work looking into the charges of manipulation and cover-up.
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"But the inequity and injustice of the Attica prosecutions is apparent on its face. While the details of how it occurred are blanketed by the secrecy of the grand jury and the prosecutor's internal workings, the special prosecutors clearly placed their first, if not their only, priority upon the prosecution of prisoners. Massive evidence of crimes committed by state officials and agents, confirmed by the McKay Commission, was ignored and suppressed; the abusive use of informers reached new heights as scores of `cooperative' prisoners, willing to concur with the state's version of events, were quickly rewarded by the Board of Parole with the most precious gift of all -- their freedom. As has so often happened in recent times, `justice' was made the servant of a political cover-up.
"Four years ago, former Governor Rockefeller refused to consider the demand of the prisoners in D-Yard for amnesty, claiming that `to do so would undermine the very essence of our free society -- the fair and impartial application of the law'. The alternative selected was the one-sided assault on D-yard that the McKay Commission later described as the `bloodiest one-day encounter between Americans since the Civil War.' But the Attica prosecutors have themselves mutilated the concept of equal justice beyond recognition.
"Humanity and justice demand that the suffering of Attica be brought top an end. We call upon the people to demand that the governor, the courts and the legislature of the State of New York stop the Attica prosecutions, dismiss the remaining indictments and set free those who have been so unjustly convicted.
"We ask you to support AMNESTY FOR ALL THE ATTICA BROTHERS and to support us in our work toward this ultimate goal. Although we are entitled to state funds for the defense of indigent prisoners, the court refuses to disburse allocated funds and we are still forced to rely on the donations of individuals and organizations around the country to carry out this work. Send contributions to ATTICA NOW. Demand AMNESTY for all Attica Brothers."
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PATUXENT INMATES DEMAND END TO INHUMANE LOCK-UPS: Protest Letter Written To
(Jessup, Md.) - In protest against inhumane, "cruel and unusual" punishment at Patuxent Penitentiary, inmates here have demanded an end to unjust lock-ups in a letter to Governor Marvin Mandel of Maryland. Inmates confined in M-1 segregation sent a copy of the letter to THE BLACK PANTHER.
The inmates are organizing against their confinement, which is against rules stated by the institution. The inmates' protests focused on four specific grievances:
(1) Unjust, indefinite lock-ups;
(2) Incompetent monthly reports by unqualified guards;
(3) Due process of treatment;
(4) Attempts at destruction of inmates' physical and mental health.
The inmates are currently in indefinite lock-up (some men have been in lock-up for years) because of their refusal to participate in various schemes put forth by prison officials.
Patuxent Penitentiary was established for "therapeutic treatment, not punitive confinement," the letter points out, but is controlled by guards and prison officials with no academic background in this area. These same guards submit reports on an inmate's "progress."
In the M-1 segregation unit, cells are six feet by nine feet and inmates are confined for all but five hours during each week, when they are let out of their cells for exercise.
This segregation has caused paranoia in some inmates, the letter points out. Some inmates' physical health has deteriorated to the point where their bones have weakened from inactivity, with some cases of arthritis developing.
Seventeen brothers signed the letter sent to Gov. Mandel expressing their unified demands that he (Mandel) use his gubernatorial powers to correct the situation at Patuxent Penitentiary. The inmates told the governor that their situation is caused by the guards' reluctance to recognize the inmates' human dignity as they struggle to be treated as men.
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Nigerian Exchange Student Slain By Dallas Cops
(Dallas, Texas) - Emmanuel Olatunji, a Nigerian exchange student in this country for three years, was brutally murdered by two Dallas policemen on August 25, at a self-service gas station, they say now "accidently."
Olatunji was pointed out by customers outside a 7-11 store on North Carroll Street that had just been robbed. Police say they approached Olatunji, with guns drawn, he ran, they called for him to halt, but he turned "and reached under his jacket," and they shot him.
Later it was learned that the customers who pointed out Olatunji had not seen the men who robbed the store. They pointed to Olatunji's car in the gas station when police arrived because they had heard the squealing of tires and "assumed" the car was connected with the robbery.
Reports state that Olatunji was shot directly between the eyes, giving rise to suspicion of the policemen's story that he was running, turned and went for "something under his jacket." No gun was found on Olatunji.
Olatunji, 27, was studying business administration at Bishop College in Dallas. He came to this country in June, 1972, from Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria, to get an education to return to Nigeria to work in the government. He lived with his brother Ebenezer while working his way through college at a drug store.
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"He was just on a simple errand to get some gas at his regular spot after work," said Bamidele Faluyui, Emmanuel's cousin, "not to hold up some store, nor run from any police. There's something more to the story than what the police are saying," Faluyui believes.
Faluyui wondered why, if Olatunji did run from the policeman as reported, the policeman did not shoot him in the foot or leg if he wanted to capture him -- not in the head.
The couple, who police said misled patrolmen Clovis Williams and Jeffrey Kirksey who did the killing, had arrived at the store after the holdup pair had fled. The woman told police she entered to find the clerk crying and was told about the robbery. She said she stepped outside and told her companion.
The police quoted the woman's companion as saying after calling to them as they arrived, "That's the ones over there. I think that is them." Store clerk Ira Gene Washington, said Olatunji was not one of the holdup men after looking at his picture. The names of the couple were withheld at the request of the police.
The case is expected to reach the grand jury for "automatic review," but city and police officials told seven Nigerian students from the area who inquired about details of the killing, that they could not provide details since the grand jury would be investigating.
Dallas Police Chief Donald Byrd said in a prepared statement that the incident was "regrettable" and added that, "We don't anticipate any action against the officers. Certainly we wish the incident had not occurred, but we can't control these things." (See poem, page 21.)
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MARION PRISON: INMATES FILE SUIT AGAINST “BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION”
(Marion, Ill.) - The brothers at Marion Federal Penitentiary here have filed a class-action suit protesting the brutally inhuman, so-called "behavior modification" program, which utilizes torture chambers called "control units" to try to break the spirit of those inmates who have the courage and audacity to struggle against their oppressive conditions.
The testimony and hearings on the suit have been concluded, although the judge's decision is pending and will not be announced for a few months. Letters supporting the protest against Marion's control units would be very helpful at this point. Please send letters to: Judge James Foreman, U.S. District Court, 750 Missouri Avenue, East St. Louis, Illinois.
Meanwhile, the brothers at Marion Penitentiary have recently made a review of the revised regulations of the Board of Parole, and we here print excerpts of their astute analysis.
"Very recently, the Board of Parole extended an invitation to prisoners to comment on the revised Rules and Regulations of the Board, and consequently, the prisoners of Marion Federal Penitentiary gathered together in a special meeting of R.T.G. to meet this purpose with the principles of ourselves. From the sown seed, 1) a committee was faithfully formed to learn and known the prisoners' perspective in relation to the Rules and Regulations, and 2) to reorganize and present that perspective, of courage and truth, as a representation of prisoners to the Board of Parole, and the public.
"The flower that bloomed is expressed within `The Prisoners' Suggestions,' beginning with the exile of prisoners -- `the grandest request that the dying can voice, for it springs from the natural law of self preservation, the humanity of the not yet dead' -- and ending with the proud call for self-determination `via prisoners' choice of programs' being duly recognized by all concerned with the rehabilitation of prisoners. Though some of the suggestions are associated more so than others to the authority of the Board of Parole, none should be dismissed `for the petals make up the flower……'
"It is equally important that we emphasize that we seek no special favors, nor resulting hardships, but rather an open avenue by which equal communication can be transmitted in regards to the application of law…
"To the public, we wish to say that now is the time for society to support prisoners; that is to say, support:
"1) the exile of prisoners;
"2) the conversion of prisons into community centers;
"3) mandatory parole upon completion of one-third of an original sentence;
"4) the establishment of a Prisoner-Legislative Forum;
"5) a uniform application of work release, furloughs, prisoner to college programs throughout the penal system;
"6) the formation of prison unions to represent prisoners' interests in wages, the workplace, job opportunities in the community, negotiations with the administration;
"7) primary consideration for parole being a prisoner's record within the community, secondary consideration for parole being a prisoner's record within prison;
"8) the drafting of feasible parole plans in the beginning of an original sentence, according to the abilities of a particular prisoner and the available community resources.
"9) an end to drug experimentation with prisoners, cruel and unusal punishment, maximum-minimum sentencing, distant imprisonment of a prisoner from his home and family, incompetent custodians and medical staff and the ethnic imbalance of minorities on a decision making level; and
"10) due recognition of prisoners' programs and self-determination.
"The axiom (a society begets what it deserves) is the anthem by which society should rally round for the return of a better humanity.
"In the strength of ourselves to the strength of the People, we trust that our truth will hold its own 'before whomsoever concerned.' In that behalf we retire this introduction to 'watch the flower live or die.'
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Alabama Prisons Condemned
(Birmingham, Ala.) - U.S. district judges, Frank M. Johnson, Jr., and William B. Hand, last week ordered the state of Alabama to stop sending new inmates to any of its four state prisons. The judges ruled on a suit which was filed on behalf of inmates in Alabama's state prison system.
(Atlanta, Ga.) - Rev. Hosea Williams, president of the Atlanta Chapter of the SCLC, has recently acquired the kingwell Chemical Corporation, manufactures of quality chemicals for environmental health. In a press release Rev. Williams states, "I am serving as president of Kingswell Chemical Corporation without financial compensation. To me this economic venture is an extension of the movement. In fact, it is the new dimension in the struggle to liberate the masses of Black and poor White people."
(Boston, Mass.) - A top FBI press aide says he quit the Bureau because of internal pressure against giving the media too much information. "I guess I provided too much access," the Boston Globe quoted William Ellingsworth as saying. "They wanted a public relations program. I wanted a public information program," he said. "The philosophy of the assistant directors and associate directors in the Bureau, whenever a request for information came in, was `will this do the Bureau any good?' I always answered, `What difference does that make? It's a legitimate request for information.'"
(Washington, D.C.) - In an unprecedented move, the Senate before adjourning for its August recess, voted down the House-Senate Conference report of the $31 billion Military Procurement Authorization Bill. The Senate action offers hope that at least some in Congress are tired of annually budget-busting military bills.
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Black Woman Tympanist To Sue S.F. Symphony
(San Francisco, Calif.) - Sister Elayne Jones, tympanist and only Black member of the San Francisco Symphony, announced last week that she will sue the symphony in federal court for discriminatory hiring policies. This decision follows the orchestra's second refusal to grant her tenure with the symphony, after three years of outstanding performances. Ms. Jones has widely been hailed as one of this country's fines tympanists.
On last Monday, a seven-person committee of symphony musicians rated her talents at 169 out of a possible 700 points. The move has the effect of terminating her from the orchestra, since a 351 minimum would have been required to grant her tenure. The committee was charged by a court settlement to cast its vote on the basis of musical ability alone, after a similar vote last December was challenged by Ms. Jones.
"Now I say it's racism," the angry tympanist declared at a press conference following announcement of the vote. Ms. Jones said she has played with the symphony for a full season under extreme pressures generated by the attitudes of musicians who wanted to see her dismissed months ago.
Ms. Jones originally won her seat with the San Francisco Symphony following eliminations leaving 42 finalists to audition before the selection committee. The 42 then individually auditioned
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behind screens,hiding them from the committee to avoid prejudice formed by whether male or female, race, appearance, etc. Ms. Jones was selected from the 42 finalists.
Ms. Jones called the new vote "ludicrous," saying it would have been impossible for anyone to score her so low since she has been highly praised by audiences and critics for years on her musical abilities alone. Music critic of the San Francisco Chronicle, Robert Commanday, called Ms. Jones "one of the best in the country," in commenting on the decision.
Ms. Jones is filing a suit based on the federal Civil Rights Act, and is represented by attorney Allen Brotsky, of the same law office as the noted courtroom attorney Charles Garry, who represents the Black Panther Party.
Outgoing Japanese-American San Francisco Symphony conductor Seiji Ozawa, himself the victim of racist pressures, has publicly stated his acceptance of the committee vote.
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ADULT BLACK MEN TOP LIST IN LENGTH OF TIME UNEMPLOYED: Auto, Construction Industries
Three weeks ago, THE BLACK PANTHER printed a feature story spotlighting the skyrocketing unemployment rate of Black workers during the first three months of 1975: figures which indicated that one of every four Black workers were jobless by March, 1975, with the total number of Black unemployed perilously close to three million.
That article (see THE BLACK PANTHER, August 18, 1975) employed statistics generated by the National Urban League's Research Department, and included the use of a unique Hidden Unemployment Index which takes into account hundreds of thousands of "discouraged" Black workers overlooked in the official government figures.
The following article rounds out the available information on the continuing gloomy plight of Black workers trapped in the underpinnings of a collapsing U.S. economy.
(Washington, D.C).. - A major reason for the withdrawal of thousands of discouraged Black workers from the labor force can be understood in terms of the increasing length of time these workers are staying jobless.
Between the fourth quarter of 1974 (the months of October, November and December) and the first quarter of 1975 (the months of January, February and March), the number of Black workers unemployed for three months or more jumped from 247,000 to 421,000, or from 22% to 29%. (See Table 4).
Other results reflected in Table 4 are:
- Adult Black men lead the list of long-term unemployed, for 15 weeks or more, at 31.1%, followed in order by teenage Black females, 29.9%; adult Black women, 26.9%; and teenage Black males, 25%.
- The vast differences in percentages of Blacks unemployed 15 weeks or more and those jobless 27 weeks or more reflects the number of Black workers who became discouraged and stopped actively looking for jobs within that 12-week period.
Tables 5 and 6 detail both the percentages and numbers of
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Black and White workers with various U.S. industries.
These two tables show that:
The automobile industry was clearly the hardest hit of all. industries in the first quarter of 1975, with Black unemployment doubling -- from 30,000 to 58,000 -- and White unemployment tripling -- from 76,000 to 210,000. As a result, on a percentage basis, Black unemployment shot up to 30.8% while White unemployment rose to 22.2%.
The depression-ridden construction industry had the second highest official rate of unemployment for both Black and White workers, with jobless rates skyrocketing to 28.2% and 18.3% respectively.
Other industries where Black workers experienced " double digit" unemployment were: apparel, 22.7%; textiles, 22.6%; food processing, 18.5%; retail trade, 13.6%; personal services, 13.3%; wholesale trade, 13.1%; and primary metals, 12.4%.
Black postal workers were among the groups hardest hit by unemployment in the first three months of 1975, with joblessness increasing from 5.3% of 8.0%. By March, 1975, Black postal workers had a jobless rate that was four times the rate for White postal workers.
Many words and many theories have been put forth in the past few months to calm a growing disgruntled citizenry upset over the worsening economic scene. Officials have declared that "the worst is over," the downward slide has "bottomed out," as analysts assert that a 6% to 12% level of unemployment will in the future be "tolerable" and "acceptable."
Within this context, therefore, it would be valuable to reprint Point #2 of the Black Panther Party's 10 Point Program and Platform:
"WE WANT FULL EMPLOYMENT FOR OUR PEOPLE.
"We believe that the federal government is responsible and obligated to give every person employment or a guaranteed income. We believe that if the American businessmen will not give full employment, then the technology and means of production should be taken from the businessmen and placed in the community so that the people of the community can organize and employ all of its people and give a high standard of living."
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DELLUMS' CORNER: Barbara Lee Named Administrative Assistant
(Washington, D.C.) - Congressman Ronald Dellums has announced the appointment of Ms. Barbara Lee to the position of administrative assistant on his Washington, D.C., staff. Ms. Lee has been working in service of the people of the Bay Area through her participation in the 1973 Elaine Brown-Bobby Seale campaign for Oakland city offices, Elaine Brown's 1975 campaign for Oakland City Council and through her volunteer work at the Oakland Community School and other viable programs.
Ms. Lee is a 1975 graduate of the University of California at Berkely with a Master's degree in social work. She obtained her baccalaureate degree at Mills College. Since graduating from Berkeley, Ms. Lee has founded and served as executive director of a community mental health center in Berkeley, C.H.A.N.G.E., Inc. She was a key coordinator of the Shirley Chisholm presidential campaign in northern California, and has been active in a large number of political and community activities in the Bay Area, including service as a director of the Oakland YWCA, the Juvenile Justice Planning Board, the Community Child Health and Disability Program, the Berkeley Family Service Agency, and the University of California Chancellor's Committee for Community Service Projects.
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ON THE BLOCK
Should Striking Police Be Allowed To Wear Guns?
ASKED AT HARDY SHOE STORE, 14TH AND BROADWAY.
1491 82nd Ave.
No, I don't. Because they're on strike, they're off duty. They're not working for the people. They ought to leave them at home and go carry a picket sign like you're supposed to do when you're on strike. No guns.
9257 14th St.
Definitely not. Not even when they're off duty. When they're working, wear guns. When they're not working, they don't have the right to wear them.
2873 25th Ave.
I don't think so. If they're on strike, then they're not working, they're not doing their duty. They're just more or less doing nothing.
No. If they're not on duty, then they should be considered citizens like everybody else. It seems like it would be just asking for trouble. They probably have an attitude because they're not making enough money. They start walking around, and if somebody pushes them the wrong way, they'll pull their gun and blow somebody's brains out.
No. Because I feel they shouldn't even be on strike. They've given up the right to strike, being civil service employees. Now to wear guns, that's just taking away more rights of the people. I feel they shouldn't.
No. It should be like in England, sticks, no guns at all.
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BLACK AMERICANS MUST UNITE TO GAIN O.A.U. OBSERVER STATUS
(Kampala, Uganda) - In order for Black Americans to acquire observer status in the Organization of African Unity (OAU), they must unite into one organization, declared OAU chairman and Uganda President Idi Amin.
The granting of observer status in the OAU would mean that one could participate in all facets of te organization's operation, including closed meetings, without actually being based in Africa. For example, the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), headed by Yasir Arafat, was recently granted observer status.
The landmark ruling by Amin was in response to an application by Roy Innis of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) for observer status, as reported by Muhammad Speaks. Amin stated at a news conference following the recent OAU conference that "Blacks in the U.S., Caribbean, and South America must unite in one organization, respectively, like us here in Africa."
Amin further stated that to grant observer status to just any group would create more division than it would prevent.
In Innis' request, it was stated that Afro-Americans would get more respect from their oppressors (in America) when "African brothers and sisters raise their voices" on behalf of their cause.
President Amin was generally supportive of the points made by Innis but could find no support to the claim that CORE is representative of Black America.
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Charge Revenue Sharing Discriminatory
(Washington, D.C.) - According to a recently released report by four national organizations, the $30.2 billion revenue sharing program, which the Ford administration wants to renew next year, is financing large-scale discrimination in state and local public employment and services, reports The New York Times.
Under the general revenue sharing program, originally passed by Congress in 1972, federal tax money has been channeled back to states and localities.
The law (the State and Local Fiscal Assistance Act) provided that no federally assisted jurisdiction could practice discrimination against any minority or women.
Using figures compiled by the Equal Opportunity Commission, the groups said that fire departments around the nation employed work forces that were 95% White and male, but only 3% Black and 1.3% women.
Police forces are 91% White, 6.3% Black and 12% women. National population percentages show Blacks in excess of 11% and women more than half the population.
In the area of salaries, White state and local employees showed an average salary of $8,844 per year, compared to $7,361 for Blacks, $7,429 for Hispanic employees and $7,030 for women. Men, across the board, had an average salary of $9,603.
The discrepancies in salaries is an indication of discrimination that resulted in White men getting more than their share of high-ranking, better-paying jobs.
Despite these statistics, the Office of Revenue Sharing (ORS) has moved in a corrective way against only two recipients.
Chicago's racist police personnel policies caused ORS to suspend $57 million in funds to that city.
ORS has set in motion actions to cut off funds to the state of Michigan because it passes through federal monies to a Detroit suburb, Ferndale, which has had its educational funds cut off for two years because of its policy of discrimination in the schools.
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“DOUBLE CHAINS”: A Call To Action To Transform America's Prisons
By Bill Brent
Bill Brent, the author of this in-depth study of the U.S. penal system, is a highly respected Black American living in forced exile in Cuba. He is about to receive a degree in language arts from the University of Havana. THE BLACK PANTHER thanks the Organization of Solidarity of the Peoples of Africa, Asia and Latin America (OSPAAL) for making this information available to our readers.
If they ask for volunteers and you do not volunteer, you will get a bad report. The parole board will tell you that you're not cooperating with the prison authorities, you're not trying to rehabilitate yourself, you're not making progress.
On the other hand, if you do volunteer, they stick electrodes into your head and kill part of your brain, or they inject you with dangerous experimental drugs. Either way they automatically win and you automatically lose. When they say "volunteer," they know exactly what they're doing; it's a type of mandatory volunteering.
For the existing 200,000 human beings confined to the American prison system, there are at best 50 or 60 psychiatrists. This comes out to something like one psychiatrist to every 4,000 inmates. The inefficiency of such a program is clear to anyone.
In Denmark, for instance, there is a ratio of one psychiatrist per 100 prisoners. In the United States of America, where they claim that rehabilitation and reform of the inmate is their basic objective, the contradiction is very obvious.
In the overall prison system, recreational facilities are limited and in some cases they do not exist. Librarv facilities are limited and in some cases they do not exist. Educational and vocational training are generally limited and, in many instances, they do not exist or they are completely obsolete.
As far as the administration of these institutions is concerned, at the vast majority of these prisons there is absolutely no research done: the medical services are substandard; the screening and training of attendants or guards is low in quality.
There are an estimated 200,000 people in U.S. prisons: 95% of them will be released; 65% of those released will return to prison. Does this sound in any way as if these prisons -- these 52 jurisdictional systems, these more than 300 prisons in the United States -- have as their basic goal the rehabilitation or reform of their inmates? If they do, then it is quite obvious from this 65% estimate, that they are a miserable failure.
The industrial complex at San Quentin, California, is comprised of a furniture factory, a clothing factory and a cotton textile mill which is reported to be the largest in the state. The wages in san Quentin, in this industrial complex, range from $.02 to $.16 an hour. The general attitude of the prison personnel is that all the inmates are guilty and that their greatest ambition is to escape.
Now this attitude, combined with fear, hatred and racism on the part of the personnel, causes great problems. All of the prisons in the State of California reinforce racism by encouraging racial divisions. They instigate racism by telling the White inmates that the Black inmates are planning to do them harm. They find small groups of susceptible Whites and encourage them to participate in racist acts and activities against the Blacks. They find small groups of Blacks who respond in the same way against Whites.
The 60s gave birth to the new upsurge of Black awareness, More and more Black people, because of the change in tactics of the Black liberation struggle, became more conscious of the fact that they were not isolated members of a group of underprivileged, dull-witted, uneducated people but that they were members of a nation; that they had been victimized and robbed not only of their freedom but of their culture heritage, of everything that is precious to a nation of people. When this happened a great many of our people were unable to transfer this national consciousness into social consciousness because they ran into abject racism. As a result, many of them became supernationalistic. What the prison authorities do whenever they can is exploit this sense of nationalism and use it against the White inmates to keep racism flourishing and to encourage racial divisions.
It is significant to note that, although Third World people make up some 20% of the national population in the United States of America, they account for more than 45% of the prison population. Before the recent Supreme Court abolition of the death penalty, 36 states were holding nearly 600 prisoners on death rows. More than 50% of those scheduled to die are Black and Third World. Out of 455 prisoners executed for rape in the southern United States, 405 were Black, Of 61 men executed in the state of Georgia, 58 were Black.
In January, 1958, at the Cummins Prison Farm, an installation of the Arkansas State prison system, it was discovered that prisoners had been illegally executed and buried on the prison property. The governor of the state at that time, another Rockefeller -- Winthrop -- dismissed the manager of the Cummins Prison Farm and installed a brand new manager.
His continued investigation of the atrocities, the crimes that had been committed by prison authorities and their inmate staff, caused him to be dismissed later by this same Governor Rockefeller because he was uncovering too much dirt.
The main method of operation in that prison system was fear and terror: it was common for the inmates to undergo beatings; needles were put under their fingernails, stompings, whippings with a leather strap five feet long and five inches wide, starvation, and electric devices whose terminals were attached to the inmates' genitals.
This prison boasted of a profit during the 50 years of its operation and that, for several years, funds had not been appropriated for its use; that in 1968 alone, over $400,000 had been made from its cotton crop harvested with inmate slave labor. And this was accomplished through the extreme forms of exploitation of the inmate population which were effected under direct threat and extreme measures of cruelty terminating in the illegal executions of some and the onstant fear of death which haunted each and every inmate in that institution.
TO BE CONTINUED
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REVOLUTIONARY SUICIDE: “Choosing”
By Huey P. Newton"
Continuing an excerpt from "Choosing, the fifth chapter of Revolutionary Suicide, the political autobiography of Huey P. Newton, leader and chief theoretician of the Black Panther party. Brother Huey discusses the vast effect that religion has had upon his life.
Part 15 follows.
For me the church was a source of inspiration that offered a countermeasure against the fear and humiliation I experienced in school. Even though I did not want to spend my life there, I enjoyed a good sermon and shouting session. I even experienced sensations of holiness, of security, and of deliverance.
They were strange feelings, hard to describe, but involving a tremendous emotional release. Though I never shouted, the emotion of others was contagious. One person stimulated another, and together we shared an ecstasy and believed our problems would be solved, although we never knew how.
James Baldwin has described this religious experience very well in The Fire Next Tim. He writes about the excitement and ecstasy that can fill a church during the service.
"There is no music," he says, "like that music, no drama like that drama of the saints rejoicing, the sinners moaning, the tambourines racing, and all those voices coming together crying holy unto the Lord…Their pain and their joy were mine, and mine were theirs -- they surrendered their pain and joy to me, I surrendered mine to them." Once you experience this feeling, it never leaves you.
For a while I thought of becoming a minister, but I gave it up when I studied philosophy in college. I began asking questions about the concept of religion and the existence of God. In trying to find God and understand Him as a philosophical existential Being, I began to question not only the Christian definition of God, but also the very foundation of my religion. I saw that it was based ob belief alone, the soundness of which was never questioned.
Because I eventually found it necessary to question and examine every idea and every belief that touched my life, I reached a kind of impasse with religion. Yet its impact on me continues in different ways. To this day, for example, I rarely use profanity.
People who have come to know me often ask why, I can only say that profanity was never used in our home. If I had been caught using it, my father would have punished me. My mother and father always lived as Christians, and this extended to the way they spoke.
When I think back on the meetings in that storefront, it seems to me that religion made an impression in a more important, yet less direct, way. It has nothing to do with a personal system of belief, but rather an awareness of what religious action can or ought to be.
Something remarkable was taking place during every prayer service. When people in the congregation prayed for each other, a feeling of community took over; they were involved in eact other's problems and trying to help solve them. Even though it was entirely directed to God and did not go beyond the meeting it suggested how powerful and moving it can be to have shared sense of purpose. People really related to each other.
Here was a microcosm of what ought to have been going on outside in the community. I had the first glimmer of What it means to have a unified goal that involves the whole community and calls forth the strengths of the people to make things better. I am sure that is part of why I was drawn to religion and why it offered so much to me then.
At the same time I was growing aware of a wholly different style of life that had nothing to do with religion, One of the reasons so many people found comfort and solace in church was that it provided -- even though briefly -- an escape from the burdens and troubles of everyday life. There was another way of life, however, that did not seem to find this relief necessary. From what I could see, this other life also had none of the worries and problems that beset ordinary working-class people.
In our community some people had achieved a special kind of status. They drove big cars, wore beautiful clothes and owned many of the most desirable things life has to offer. Almost without trying, they seemed to have gotten the things for which the rest of the people were working so hard. Moreover, they were having fun in the process. They were not forced to compromise by imitating White boys and going on in school. They succeeded in spite of the humiliations of the school system.
TO BE CONTINUED
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JoANNE LITTLE TALKS WITH THE BLACK PRESS
JoAnne Little held a second press conference during her visit to Oakland for the Black press and Black media workers in the establishment media on Tuesday, August 28, at the Oakland Community Learning Center in East Oakland, under the sponsorship of the Black Panther Party. Accompanying JoAnne was Larry Little, spokesperson of the National JoAnne Little Defense Committee and coordinator of the Winston-Salem, North Carolina Chapter of the Black Panther Party. JoAnne and Larry were presented tothe assembled group of press, radio and TV workers by David G. Du Bois, spokesperson of the Black Panther Party. Following is a slightly edited transcript of that press conference.
QUESTION: what was most significant about your recent stay here in the Bay Area?
JoANNE: What stands out in my mind was my visit to San Quentin and meeting Johnny Spain. I had read some of his writings and heard a lot about him through members of the Black Panther Party. But I had not been able to come into contact with him. And then, the way they (the prison authorities) treated me when I went there. I was not even an inmate yet they made it quite clear that they did not want me there. Only because of the judge's court order were they going to permit me to see him. And, at the trial (the San Quentin 6 trial) yesterday -- I just can't see a person being chained down to the floor like that. They say they are giving him a fair trial, and that they are innocent until proven guilty. I had never seen anything like this before in my entire life.
BLACK PANTHER PARTY
QUESTION: How did you come into contact with the Black Panther Party.
JoANNE: Well, my relationship with the Party started from the Chapter in Winston-Salem, coming to rallies and supporting me, going out to Washington, North Carolina, leading demonstrations when nobody else would go down there, leading in that type of demonstration. That's the kind of thing the Black Panther Party is fighting for: survival for Black people. It all ties in with Black people being railroaded into jail and into prison. When a person gets into trouble he has to go to the court system. They become a victim of the system. It all ties in. You can not deal with one without dealing with the other.
QUESTION: You have had your experience with the system of justice in North Carolina. After what you have said, do you think that our system (in California) is even worse than North Carolina?
JoANNE: No, I wouldn't say this system is worse than in North Carolina. I say that throughout this entire country it is bad. But I do say that in North Carolina it is (bad). I don't want to say worse than here. I think some changes can be made throughout the entire justice system, because I don't think you have 84 people in death row here in California, and, from my understanding, the gas chambers haven't been used in four or five years. But seeing the San Quentin 6, I would say that is worse. The question confuses us all.
QUESTION: Do you feel that the national recognition of your trial contributed to your acquittal. Do you think it worked out well, the focus on your trial?
JoANNE: Well, I did not think that people were going to come to my support, in the way they did support me. I just though that it would be just like any other trial -- just me and the two attorneys and my family. It all happened so fast. Right now I feel like it was a nightmare that really never happened -- the way things fell into place. I just can't explain how so many people got involved in it, because when we started off it was just Paul (Jerry Paul, the attorney) and me and one other person.
Then, before the trial was even known about there were over 200 people working on the defense, not even counting the different organizations that were working on it.
QUESTION: JoAnne, as you said earlier, the issue is the way Black people are railroaded day after day, year after year, into prison. Without all the publicity and without the drive that went into your defense, similar to that of Angela Davis' defense a few years ago, perhaps you might have been railroaded in the same fashion… . there are still hundreds of thousands of Black people who are facing the same situation day after day. My question to you is, how do you think you can help stop that, what are you trying to do to change that situation? Are you going to be spotlighting certain cases that are important?
JoANNE: No, I really don't think that the spotlight being on me is important. There are people that have not had a chance, that are really not as fortunate as me to have people to help them. There are people that to jail and prison, not because they are guilty, but because they don't have any money to pay an attorney -- just a lousy 200 dollars -- to represent them. So, they end up getting a state-appointed attorney who says two words for them and five words against them. Before they really realize what's going on, they have got 15, 20 years and they end up in prison. A lot of people don't even know what prison is like. All they know is that prison is this and jails are this and that they have bars and that's it. They don't know the conditions because they don't have a chance to go there and see for themselves.
I have seen the kind of hell those people are going through. I can tell people that I saw this for myself, not somebody coming to just paint a picture in their minds of what prison is all about, what it is like. It is not like the prison officials and the system says and tries to put into people's minds. In North Carolina at the prison where I was housed, the women's prison, there are more Blacks there than Whites. More Whites get out on study release or work releases with 20 or 30 year sentences than sisters in there with only 2 year sentences.
QUESTION: JoAnne, from your experience, can you think of some specific things that should be changed, some things that come right to your mind?
JoANNE: First, there are so many things that need to be changed. For instance, a person that appeals her case in North Carolina, they send them to prison and on appeal it may take two years, three years or maybe four years, especially if you are on Death Row. But just the matter of appeal may take you a year, but you are sitting in a cell just like Johnny Spain, for 23 hours a day with no type of exercise, no sunshine or anything. These people are still supposed to be innocent because, even though they have been convicted, they have appealed their cases. The county jails are even worse than the prisons. These people haven't even been convicted. They are just there waiting trial. When you sit there and when you use the toilet facilities and see all that stuff backing up; you don't have decent food and it's cold and that kind of thing. How can a person sit in there until some of these things are changed?
QUESTION: At the press conference on Friday you talked about the Communist Party and how it undermined your campaign. Would you elaborate?
JoANNE: The incident happened on the 27th of August (last year). I was on the run for about
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six days. The last day, just before I surrendered to the FBI agents, there was a sister there by the name of Chenier, that was a member of the North Carolina Alliance (National Alliance Against Racist and Political Repression). She called Charlene (Mitchell) and Angela (Davis) and asked them to come down and give us support. At that time there was no defense committee, there was no mobilization. There was only Jerry Paul and me. I was going to submit and go to prison and we needed somebody to get out there and speak out for us so people would be educated and know what had just happened in North Carolina. We knew we were going to need money. We had to have money because we asked the state for money and it wouldn't give it to us. So, we had to appeal to the public to help us. She (Angela) said that the case was not important and that she couldn't come, that she wasn't going to come.
SIX MONTHS LATER
Later, about six months later, after I got out of prison -- I got out on February 26 -- by that time we had the funds for the defense. We had over 200 people working on it, about seven attorneys and other organizations. Then, Charlene Mitchell comes down and she's going to take over; she's going to take all of the political affairs into her hands. By then Larry Little (coordinator of the Winston-Salem Chapter of the Black Panther Party) was in charge of national publicity. Charlene would set up things and wouldn't even consult Larry at all. When he asked me to come with busloads to lead demonstrations, she sent letters from the North Carolina Alliance saying we don't need people to support this case, and we don't need any buses. We might send a representative or one car of people, something like that, but otherwise, we won't need a lot of people there. This was not her job to do that. On top of that they came to the defense team and wanted to jump off asking me to become a member of the Communist Party. I just cannot have any respect for that party. That's how it all started.
They were not there until February, when they sent Charlene Mitchell down there. She came and asked, could she help? She did not say she came down there to take over. I said OK, if you want to help then we work it out with Larry Little. But there were contradictions and they could not get along together because this meant she had to go to Larry on decisions like whether there would be a rally there or a rally there, and she didn't want to do that. She did not want to be under Larry Little, an member of the Black Panther Party. She wanted to be over him, so that he would have to do just the opposite -- come to her. She tried to slide in and thought she was going to take over.
QUESTION: Has that experience with Charlene Mitchell turned you against Marxist tendencies and the aims of the Communist Party?
JoANNE: I don't even know what the Communist Party is all about. When Charlene was there I asked her what positive work has the Communist Party done for Blacks and I have yet to receive an answer, So, I don't know what the Communist Party is all about, really! It has given me a very dim view about the Communist Party. This makes me think that they are deceiving and they just use Angela as a way of getting over. That's the way I see it. My feelings may change, but they have to show me something to make them change. Until then they'll stay what they are.
QUESTION: When are you going to leave?
JoANNE: Well, I am suppose to leave for North Carolina Thursday, and from there I'll go to Philadelphia to do the Mike Douglas show and I'll be traveling to different places till the 22nd of September. The hearing for the case will be on the 23rd, and we have to really be prepared for that day. We know they are going to turn us down anyway, but it may be even better for us to get to the federal court in which we feel we will win. In January, I plan to enroll in a course in journalism in Winston-Salem.
QUESTION: Are you prepared for reprisals from racists when you return?
JoANNE: That's all over the country. That's not only in North Carolina. They are racist so I'll have to deal with that everywhere I go. It's just more open in Washington (North Carolina) than in any other place.
QUESTION: What about the other case? What are you appealing now?
JoANNE: The 7 to 10 years conviction for breaking and entering. That was the first case. I have to deal with that. I was in appeal at the time .When I went to prison on this first degree murder charge and was waiting for them to give me a bond, the district attorney made it very clear that he did not want me to get out, so he tried everything in his power to keep me from getting out. He made sure that I lost my appeal. We worked very hard during the six months I was in prison. We got the appeal back, and that's where we are.
We got it on grounds that the attorney was incompetent and it was proved during the hearing that we had just before I got out on the $115,000 bond. I'm on the $15,000 now. What the district attorney did was set up my bond hearing in Raleigh and at the same time in another court he set up a hearing with the judge to have my other appeal dropped. So you know that I could not be at two places at the same time. Therefore, my attorney, not being able to be there today something about it, lost the appeal, but gained the bond on first degree murder.
QUESTION: Are you going to use the same attorney for the appeal that you had on your case?
JoANNE: The same attorney.
QUESTION: Why were your charges dropped from first degree to second degree murder?
NOT ENOUGH EVIDENCE
JoANNE: Because the judge said there was not enough evidence. You see, we talked to the prosecution two weeks before the trial even began, with Judge Hobgood and all the attorneys. He told the prosecution: "Look, you don't have no evidence to convict this girl on first degree murder. Drop the charges to second degree. You have a better chance for a second degree or voluntary manslaughter. Maybe somewhere down the line you can get a conviction." But the prosecutor had so much against me he just said: "No, I'm not going to do that. I'm going for all or nothing." So, he went for first degree. After the judge heard all the evidence and they were talking about having letters that proved that I was trying to plan to escape and that kind of thing, and when he went through all the writings and everything, even the judge said this isn't anything but bullshit. He just threw it out and the prosecutor did not even change the story at that point. He still went on claiming premeditation, even on second degree murder. That's how dumb he was. Second degree murder doesn't even carry premeditation. It carries intent and he could not even prove that. Even the jury said he did not come close to proving that on either first degree or second degree or voluntary manslaughter or involuntary manslaughter. They could not convict me on any one.
QUESTION: I want to get off the trial and come back to the Communist issue. Are you suggesting that Black people stay away from the Communist Party or are you suggesting something instead of the Communist Party?
JoANNE: Yes, I am suggesting something instead of the Communist Party. I will give you another example. There were sisters down there in Raleigh, North Carolina, in the Women's Prison that were also appealing for help from Angela Davis and the Communist Party. They were sitting there with guards from a men's prison with guns and sticks to beat those sisters up knowing the sisters were unarmed. They were all lying on the ground with their blankets and their pillows engaged in a peaceful protest against the laundry and the conditions they have to work in and the heavy carts they have to push around. Angela sent a telegram down there telling the sisters that she could not come because she had been in a car accident. Well, if Angela Davis was in a car accident, it would be throughout the world in three minutes. So, when she sent a telegram down there to Raleigh to all the sisters down there, they said: "But, we don't want any telegram from her. We want to see her here showing some support. She is going to sell us out the same way she sold out Ruchell Magee."
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That's very cold for them to say that because other organizations and women's groups went down there not only one night, but for the entire two weeks seeing those sisters being pushed around and teargassed and beaten up. If they hadn't there would have been more than just 60 women injured, two or three very seriously with one losing her child because a guard kicked her. Angela going around speech making and talking about we've got to get the sisters and brothers out of prison, and she doesn't have enough guts and respect for herself to go there and support those sisters. She is doing nothing but giving lip service to Black people. She is not really dedicated to what she is saying.
QUESTION: You said you are suggesting something else besides the Communist Party. What is it that you are suggesting?
JoANNE: I just suggest that Black people stay away from them because I don't feel they have anything to offer Black people exept deceit. If I have to give an honest opinion now about not only what happened with me but what I have seen them doing and talking to Charlene and her not being able to give me any kind of foundation as far as what the Communist Party is all about, I just say that they are just a cover for the pigs! That's what I say about them, and I wouldn't trust them further than from here to you, not with my life, not with even two years of my life. I don't think that Black people should trust them at all.
QUESTION: What else are you suggesting. What else should Black people turn to?
JoANNE: To organizations that are sincere in what they are doing and that have something to offer, because the Communist Party doesn't have any programs to offer the Black community. They have not placed anything out there to help the Black community at all.
QUESTION : What about Angela Davis herself. Are you disappointed with her response to the situation?
JoANNE: Yes, I was disappointed because she is Black. But you have to think about it this way. You are constantly learning from your environment and sooner or later you can't stay in that environment and not change. She is totally surrounded by a bunch of Whites and so, she has come to the point where she thinks just like them. She thinks that she owes them her life, because she thinks they got her out free, that they gave her freedom.
QUESTION : Have you talked to her since the end of the trial?
JoANNE: I talked to her during the trial. She came out once and I sat down and talked to her. That's when she made her deliberate attempt to ask me to come into the Party. This was when she said that she did not sell out Ruchell Magee, but Ruchell put himself in jail. It's many things. I could go on and on. You have to sit down and listen to that sister to understand for yourself what she is about.
QUESTION : Were you as suspicious of the White feminists who rallied behind you as you were of the Communist Party?
JoANNE: No. Most of the White members of the White feminists that supported me were poor and they understand what Black people are going through and they really just want to help. They also understood that this was not just a cause for Black women, but for women on the whole. They just wanted to come in and support.
QUESTION : Can you tell us what organization would you advise the Black community to go into, since you said it should be a sincere organization. It's obvious that you relate to the Black Panther Party, but I think that one of the questions centered around that is what other organizations do you feel serve the Black community, i.e., NAACP?
JoANNE: There are so many organizations. But, the only one that I really had a chance to really watch and observe and see what they are all about was the Black Panther Party. The only ones that I would really not feel bad about working with are the Black Panther Party or the Prisoners Solidarity Committee and some of the other different women's groups that were really sincere in what they did. Those I felt were trying to help not only me, but were interested in the community as a whole, in its survival; helping the community to help itself. They were not just interested in holding rallies and raising money to put in their pockets, and not putting back into the community where it is really needed.
I believe that groups should work together when their interests are the same. I feel that the NAACP has done some good things and I don't have anything against them. I know more about the SCLC (Southern Christian Leadership Conference) because of Golden Frinks and some of the crazy things he did to try to sabotage our strategy in the trial. But that does not deal with SCLC. It only deals with one field secretary, Golden Frinks. Other than that -- SCLC, NAACP, all those other organizations are OK.
But of all of them I think that the only one that I can really say that I have really respect for -- this is important -- that I really have had a chance to stay around, observe and listen to and see what they are all about is the Black Panther Party. Other than that I don't know that much about any other organization because I just haven't been around or had any real contact with them.
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THE BLACK PANTHER PARTY PROGRAM: MARCH 29, 1972 PLATFORM
WHAT WE WANT, WHAT WE BELIEVE
1. WE WANT FREEDOM. WE WANT POWER TO DETERMINE. THE DESTINY OF OUR BLACK AND OPPRESSED COMMUNITIES.
We believe that Black and oppressed people will not be free until we are able to determine our destinies in our own communities ourselves, by fully controlling all the institutions which exist in our communities.
2. WE WANT FULL EMPLOYMENT FOR OUR PEOPLE.
We believe that the federal government is responsible and obligated to give every person employment or a guaranteed income. We believe that if the American businessmen will not give full employment, then the technology and means of production should be taken from the businessmen and placed in the community so that the people of the community can organize and employ all of its people and give a high standard of living.
3. WE WANT AN END TO THE ROBBERY BY THE CAPITALIST OF OUR BLACK AND OPPRESSED COMMUNITIES.
We believe that this racist government has robbed us and now we are demanding the overdue debt of forty acres and two mules. Forty acres and two mules were promised 100 years ago as restitution for slave labor and mass murder of Black people. We will accept the payment in currency which will be distributed to our many communities. The American racist has taken part in the slaughter of over fifty million Black people. Therefore, we feel this is a modest demand that we make.
4. WE WANT DECENT HOUSING, FIT FOR THE SHELTER OF HUMAN BEINGS.
We believe that if the landlords will not give decent housing to our Black and oppressed communities, then the housing and the land should be made into cooperatives so that the people in our communities, with government aid, can build and make decent housing for the people.
5. WE WANT EDUCATION FOR OUR PEOPLE THAT EXPOSES THE TRUE NATURE OF THIS DECADENT AMERICAN SOCIETY. WE WANT EDUCATION THAT TEACHES US OUR TRUE HISTORY AND OUR ROLE IN THE PRESENT-DAY SOCIETY.
We believe in an educational system that will give to our people a knowledge of self, If you do not have knowledge of yourself and your position in the society and the world, then you will have little chance to know anything else.
6. WE WANT COMPLETELY FREE HEALTH CARE FOR ALL BLACK AND OPPRESSED PEOPLE.
We believe that the government must provide, free of charge, for the people, health facilities which will not only treat our illnesses, most of which have come about as a result of our oppression, but which will also develop preventative medical programs to guarantee our future survival. We believe that mass health education and research programs must be developed to give all Black and oppressed people access to advanced scientific and medical information, so we may provide ourselves with proper medical attention and care.
7. WE WANT AN IMMEDIATE END TO POLICE BRUTALITY AND MURDER OF BLACK PEOPLE, OTHER PEOPLE OF COLOR, ALL OPPRESSED PEOPLE INSIDE THE UNITED STATES.
We believe that the racist and fascist government of the United States uses its domestic enforcement agencies to carry out its program of oppression against Black people, other people of color and poor people inside the United States. We believe it is our right, therefore, to defend ourselves against such armed forces and that all Black and oppressed people should be armed for self-defense of our homes and communities against these fascist police forces.
8. WE WANT AN IMMEDIATE END TO ALL WARS OF AGGRESSION.
We believe that the various conflicts which exist around the world stem directly from the aggressive desires of the U.S. ruling circle and government to force its domination upon the oppressed people of the world. We believe that if the U.S. government or its lackeys do not cease these aggressive wars that it is the right of the people to defend themselves by any means necessary against their aggressors.
9. WE WANT FREEDOM FOR ALL BLACK AND POOR OPPRESSED PEOPLE NOW HELD IN U.S. FEDERAL, STATE, COUNTY, CITY AND MILITARY PRISONS AND JAILS. WE WANT TRIALS BY A JURY OF PEERS FOR ALL PERSONS CHARGED WITH SO-CALLED CRIMES UNDER THE LAWS OF THIS COUNTRY.
We believe that the many Black and poor oppressed people now held in U.S. prisons and jails have not received fair and impartial trials under a racist and fascist judicial system and should be free from incarceration. We believe in the ultimate elimination of all wretched, inhuman penal institution, because the masses of men and women imprisoned inside the United States or by the U.S. military are the victims of oppressive conditions which are the real cause of their imprisonment. We believe that when persons are brought to trial that they must be guaranteed, by the United States, juries of their peers, attorneys of their choice and freedom from imprisonment while awaiting trials.
10. WE WANT LAND, BREAD, HOUSING, EDUCATION, CLOTHING, JUSTICE, PEACE AND PEOPLE'S COMMUNITY CONTROL OF MODERN TECHNOLOGY.
When, in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume, among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the laws of nature and nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.
We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. That, to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed; that, whenever any form of government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or to abolish it, and to institute a new government, laying its foundation on such principles, and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their safety and happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that governments long established should not be changed for light and transient cause: and, accordingly, all experience hath shown that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But, when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same object, evinces a design to reduce them under absolute despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such government, and to provide new guards for their future security.
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Intercommunal News: Nigerian FESTAC Hit By Widespread Scandal: Foreign And
Domestic Promoters Charged With Corruption
(Washington, D.C.) - The new Nigerian regime has decided to postpone and possibly cancel the second annual Black and African Festival Arts and Culture (FESTAC), originally scheduled to be held this fall.
Muhammad Speaks reports that Brigadier General Rufai Mohamed, the new Nigerian head of state, made this decision with wide popular support. In fact, an editorial in the Lagos Sunday Times declared that "postponing it (FESTAC) alone will not be enough," it "must be cancelled."
In Nigeria, there is widespread opposition to the Festival. There have been charges of excessive spending along with unnecessary extravagance. The most serious of these charges have been those of alleged corruption by foreign and domestic promoters of the affair.
Over 3,000 U.S. participants had been scheduled to attend FESTAC with $3.5 million dollars stated as a goal to achieve and insure U.S. participation.
Since the announcement of FESTAC's postponement, a critical development has taken place in Nigeria. Investigations into the old regime on how Nigerian citizens were deprived of their rights and property, and into how FESTAC-allocated money has been spent has been demanded, again by the Lagos Sunday Times.
Another question being raised is one pertaining to CIA bases in Nigeria. A recent editorial stated that Nigerian security has deteriorated to the point where "ever our thoughts are monitored by outside interests."
There has been confusion and speculation over the recent coup d'etah in Nigeria, but the new regime is seemingly making overtures to correct some of the injustices of the old regime. (See THE BLACK PANTHER, August 11, 1975.)
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SMITH SABOTAGES RHODESIAN TALKS: Refusal To Grant Amnesty To Z.A.N.U. Militants
(Livingstone, Zambia) - The much bally-hooed talks between Zimbabwean African nationalists and the rebel White minority leader of Rhodesia, Ian Smith, collapsed before they got started, despite the presence of Zambian President Kenneth Kaunda in the unseemly stance of co- with racist South African Premier John Vorster.
Ian Smith's refusal to grant amnesty to African nationalist leaders, the most important of which are Rev. Ndabiningi Sithole and James Chikerema, leaders of the militant Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU), so they could attend continuing committee talks slated to be held in Rhodesia, was responsible for the failure of the talks.
More than a dozen such leaders are now threatened with immediate arrest should they set foot in Rhodesia. Since the future talks would be held in Rhodesia, leading toward a constitutional conference on Black majority rule, Smith's refusal to grant amnesty meant these leaders would be excluded from these talks.
Bishop Abel Muzorewa, the nominal leader of the African National Council (ANC), and spokesperson for the combined forces of the national liberation movements of Zimbabwe (Rhodesia), at a news conference here following collapse of the talks, said Smith had "decided to wreck" the constitutional talks and had "torpedoed every effort of ours that would have led to a full-scale conference."
Bishop Muzorewa said in a statement for the Council that the talks had broken down because Smith had refused repeatedly to grant an amnesty to council leaders who face possible arrest in Rhodesia if they return to the country to join in future talks.
Later, all 18 African members of the Rhodesian parliament declared they would not participate in any talks with the Smith regime leading toward full-scale constitutional talks. They issued a joint statement declaring that the African National Council is the true representative of the African people of Zimbabwe and the only legitimate body to negotiate majority rule.
This came after Ian Smith announced that he would call a news conference to which he would invite tribal chiefs and "other groups of African opinion." He said "the door is still open" for the ANC to attend such talks.
Zimbabwe tribal chiefs represent no political force in Rhodesia. They are traditional leaders whose livelihood depends on "salaries" they receive from the Ian Smith regime and their traditional status in the tribal society. Many have always been used by the Smith regime to undermine efforts toward African majority rule in Zimbabwe.
Earlier reports from Salisbury, Rhodesia, quote Dr. Edson Sithole, publicity secretary of the African National Council as declaring that the Council was no longer thinking in terms of a transitional period during which there would be phased progress toward majority African rule in Zimbabwe.
"The question of a transitional government is out," he said in an interview in Salisbury on August 21, "We are now only considering
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the establishment of a provisional government in which there would be a majority of Africans." This, he said, would take months rather than years.
Smith and his supporters, as well as some African opinion, has taken the position that a long period of preparation or transition should precede actual African majority rule in Zimbabwe. The militants have always insisted that no such transitional period is required; that African majority rule NOW is the demand of the people; all that need be determined in constitutional talks is the procedure for the orderly handover of government from the minority White regime of Ian Smith to an African-led leadership.
Observers note that the collapse of the so-called Victoria Falls talks last week exposes Zambian President Kenneth Kaunda to serious criticism because of his role, in conjunction with South African Prime Minister John Vorster, in pressuring the two sides to the conference table, knowing that Smith was not prepared to grant amnesty to the exiled ZANU leaders for follow up talks.
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APARTHEID AND THE AFRICAN WOMAN: U.N. Report Details Economic, Political And
The complex web of fascist laws regulating the lives of Black women in the urban areas of the Republic of South Africa is discussed in Part 3 of this documented series on the oppressive political, economic and social conditions faced by Black women in the racist apartheid regime of South Africa. The series is reprinted from a special United Nations report submitted by the director-general of the International Labor Office to the 60th Session of the International Labor Conference held in June, 1975.
Since, for a number of years, no African woman has been allowed to enter a prescribed area to take up employment or residence, it is extremely difficult for an African woman to establish that she entered an area lawfully. Therefore, a woman who has entered an area illegally will be forced to leave when the facts are discovered, even though she may have remained in the area without incident for several years and may be married to an African who is qualified under section 10 (1). As she has not entered lawfully, she will never qualify as a wife under section 10 (1) (c) and she has virtually no chance of obtaining a permit if she tries to regularize her situation.
In addition, relatively few African women qualify in their own right under section 10 (1) (a) and (b). The number of women born in an urban area who have lived there or worked for the same employer continuously for the required period of time without spending disqualifying periods elsewhere -- attending schools in other areas or staying with relatives in rural areas -- is limited. Secondly, even if she has lived continuously in the area for 15 years, it is often very difficult for her to produce documentary proof to that effect.
One complicating factor is that the Urban Areas Act of 1952 was not implemented immediately with regard to women. The need for women to have a permit was introduced on different dates in different areas. For example, in Johannesburg it was on March 10, 1959. In Cape Town, women were advised in 1954 to take out "reference books," but it did not become obligatory to possess one until February 1, 1963 (however, the obligation to prove continuous residence in order to qualify for exemption from a permit was counted from 1954).
As many women were, at a time when those requirement came into force, unaware of their obligation to register, and when they finally regularized the situation, if they could not produce adequate documentary proof of continuous residence or employment (frequently because of failure by employers to register their domestic servants), they lost their right to remain in the area unless they otherwise qualified for a permit.
The laws and regulations which apply to women in urban areas are so complicated that it would be quite impossible to examine them in detail in these pages. However, a few examples may suffice to give an idea of their implications in the daily lives of African women.
In an African woman who is qualified under section 10 (1) (a) or (b) marries an African who lives in another area, and she goes to live with him, she loses her rights in her area of origin. Even if he qualifies under section 10 (1) (a) and (b) in his own area, his wife will not acquire such rights there, although she has lost her rights in her own area. Even if he can get a permit for her to live with him and can accommodate her, this will give her no permanent rights and, if she becomes a widow or divorces, she will have lost her legal foothold in both areas. If she was, before marrying, qualified under section 10 (1) (c) as an unmarried daughter of a qualified African she loses her rights if she marries
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any African not qualified in her area.
The requirement that a wife "ordinarily resides" with her husband, implies that she must be living with him in a house where he is entitled to live and which is authorized accommodation for married people. She cannot therefore claim that she ordinarily resides with him if he is officially resident in a hostel or in authorized accommodation on his employer's premises.
Because of the restrictions on the number. Africans allowed to live on employers' premises in White areas -- as regards domestic servants, usually not more than one person per household -- husbands and wives working for separate employers in the same area cannot live together at the premises of one of the employers. Even if the employer is perfectly willing to allow them to do so, he will be committing an offense and may be prosecuted under the relevant regulation.
If the husband and wife are working for the same employer, they may in exceptional circumstances (mostly if no other accommodation is available) be allowed to live together on the employer's premises, but as soon as alternative accommodation becomes available (for example in a hostel), one of them will have to move out. This leads to the absurd situation of hundreds of African married men and women being forced to live in "single" hostels.
An African man may be fortunate enough to have family housing in an African urban township, in which he will have the right to live with his wife and children. However, there is a serious shortage of houses in many townships, and the waiting list for such houses is enormous. Only men over the age of 21 who qualify to be in the area concerned under section 10 (1) or (b) and who have dependents who are lawfully in the area will be accepted on the waiting list. As women have no leasehold rights in the urban areas under the relevant regulations, they are not accepted on the list.
Since a woman is only most exceptionally entitled to be the registered tenant of a house, the situation of divorced or deserted wives and of widows is very precarious. Such wives and widows will often be evicted from the houses where they have lived with their husbands for years and are liable to be sent away to a rural area, unless they have other qualifications for remaining in the urban area and a steady source of income (for example from employment).
African women who are in employment in urban areas are of course obliged to possess reference books and to abide by all the regulations under the Bantu Labor Act. 1964, and the Bantu Labor Regulations, 1965, which have already been amply described in earlier Special Reports. This means in particular that they are at all times in danger of being "endorsed out" of an urban area for any number of minor technical breaches of the regulations (for example, a missing entry in the reference book).
If she loses her job, an African women will also have to be particularly careful not to fall foul of section 29 of the Urban Areas Act, which applies to "idle Bantu." This definition includes any African woman other than a "bona fide Bantu housewife" between the ages of 15 and 60 who, even if supported by her parents, is normally unemployed although capable of working (unless she is a student). It also includes any African man or woman who has on three consecutive occasions refused or failed without good cause to take up jobs offered him or her by a labor bureau; has twice within a period of six months failed through his or her own fault to hold a job for at least one month; or has been discharged from his or her job for misconduct more than three times in any given year.
TO BE CONTINUED
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AFRICA IN FOCUS
The Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Association of African Central Banks (ABCA) was held in the capital city of Kinshasa, Zaire, from August 18 to 22. At the conference, 40 governors of the African Central Banks discussed the common stand to be adopted by African countries in establishing a just, new international monetary order. Outgoing ABCA president Clement Isong of the Nigerian Central Bank expressed the hope of African solidarity so as to "safeguard the vital interests of the whole continent," adding, that the developing African countries must "let their voices be heard" if a new monetary system is to become a reality.
The Fourth Congress of the Mauritanian People's Party has affirmed efforts to consolidate Arab-African unity and has firmly supported the just struggles of the peoples of southern Africa, Palestine and Korea, Hsinhua news agency reports. A number of resolutions were adopted at the conference, including one that states: "The Congress rejoices over the positive results of the recent Kampala Summit (the OAU meeting) and wishes that the unity and solidarity of the African peoples would resist attempts perpetuated from outside with an ulterior motive to weaken or split the African peoples."
Tanzanian Foreign Minister John Malecela recently lashed out at the U.S.-Russia arms build-up in the Indian Ocean at a state dinner for visiting U.S. Senator Dick Clark, the chairman of the Senate African Affairs subcommittee. "It is absurd to note that while there is so much talk about disarmament and detente, there is a corresponding effort in perfecting nuclear weapons for the destruction of human life, peace and the security of the world," Malecela said. "Let me call upon the two superpowers to adhere to the U.N. resolution which established the Indian Ocean as a zone of peace, "the Tanzanian foreign minister added.
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U.N. Condemns Arrest Of Black South African Leaders
(United Nations, N.Y.) - The United Nations (U.N.) Special Committee Against Apartheid has condemned the recent imprisonment and persecution of numerous young Black Azanian (South African) leaders and other opponents of apartheid (segregation) by the White racist government.
The condemnation, issued in a statement on behalf of the Committee by its acting chairman, Eustace Seignoret of Trinidad and Tobago, charges that the actions of the Azanian government "show that the regime is obliged constantly to escalate repression in its desperate effort to impose its criminal policy of apartheid."
The Committee noted that soon after FRELIMO (Mozambique Liberation Front) assumed leadership of the provisional government in Mozambique in September, 1974 -- a move which was enthusiastically greeted by Black Azanians -- the Vorster government launched nationwide arrests of young Black leaders. Among the organizations affected by these arrests were the South African Student Organization (SASO) and the Black People's Convention (BPC), as well as cultural groups associated with the Black Consciousness Movement, such as the Theatre Council of Natal and the People's Experimental Theater in Johannesburg. Further arrests were made in November, 1974, and between January and March, 1975.
Criticizing the Vorster government for refusing to provide any detailed information on the persons under arrest or even the numbers of those arrested, the Committee said that press reports estimate the total to be at least 50.
The treason trial of 13 of the 50 -- falsely charged in court last February for violating a government ban on demonstrations under the notorious Terrorism Act (providing for a minimum sentence of five years' imprisonment and a maximum penalty of death) -- collapsed in June due to the "vague" indictments of the Black leaders of the Black Consciousness Movement (see THE matter missing
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In conclusion, the Apartheid Committee states:
BLACK PANTHER, August 25, 1975). The indictments of two of the 13 were quashed on June 23 by the Pretoria Supreme Court, but the other 11 were kept in detention and again charged on June 27.
The Apartheid Committee statement continued to explain that while other detainees -- some of whom had been held for nine months -- were released without any charges, the court warned them that they may be subpoenaed to give evidence against their comrades. Failure to give evidence calls for a penalty of 12 months in prison, renewable indefinitely. Over 50 members of Black organizations have reportedly fled Azania to escape detention and to avoid being forced to give evidence against their colleagues.
"(The Vorster government) has resorted to ruthless repression against the Black Consciousness Movement because this movement has frustrated its (the government's) maneuvers to divide the oppressed people of South Africa; exposed the fraud of Bantustans and other apart-heid institutions; denounced so-called leaders of these institutions; and called for an end to foreign investment in South Africa and a total isolation of the racist minority regime.
"The Special Committee applauds the courage and stead-fastness of these young Black leaders of South Africa. It calls on all governments and organizations to demonstrate their solidarity with them and with the other political prisoners… by total isolation of the racist minority regime, the denunciation of its collaborators in apart-heid institutions and firm support to the liberation movement."
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MOBUTU: A PUPPET TREMBLING WITHOUT THE MASTER PULLING STRINGS -- REVOLUTION
IN THE CONGO / REACTION IN TANZANIA?
Part 6 of this continuing series discusses the overall objectives of the Tanzanian kidnapping of three American students and a Dutch woman last May by the Popular Revolutionary Party (PRP) of the Congo: 1) World exposure of the troubles of the CIA-backed regime in Zaire, headed by Mobutu Sese Seko; and 2) heightening the consciousness of workers and peasants in Zaire that the PRP is waging "successful armed resistance to Mobutu's reign of terror."
At the time that he rejected the ransom demands, President Nyerere ordered the re-arrest of the released detainees still in the country to emphasize that Tanzania was firm in rejecting the demands. Whether or not the released detainees were re-arrested indiscriminately or whether only suspected PRP members were re-arrested -- assuming any PRP people were ever indeed released -- has not been made clear.
Eyewitnesses in Kigoma, the region in which the kidnapping took place, have told of a massive round-up of Zaire nationals in the area. How many of them will also be expelled -- perhaps to their deaths -- cannot be foreseen. Tanzania is patrolling Lake Tanganyika and Kigoma with ground troops and helicopters. It is virtually impossible to get in or out without the army or police knowing about it. How long they can and will keep up such heavy security in Kigoma is again anyone's guess -- but probably not for long.
Questions must be raised concerning the tactical correctness of PRP's bold move to free its incarcerated comrades. Although Tanzania probably did send Yumbu Gabriel to his death in 1973 and is presently holding 12 PRP men in its jails, the government was not previously engaged in an active witch hunt against PRP operatives in Tanzania. PRP militants and sympathizers have been able to use Tanzania -- albeit with some risk -- as a limited transit and supply area.
The United States will not allow Mobutu to twiddle his thumbs for long -- it was not for nothing that they have backed Zaire with $1 billion in bilateral, United Nations and World Bank aid since Mobutu came to power in 1965. They expect him to pacify Zaire and "stabilize" East, Central, and Southern Africa for imperialist penetration. We can look for an American orchestrated offensive against PRP in the coming months, especially if no deal can be made and the three remaining hostages are executed. PRP gave Tanzania 60 days to meet its demands. As of today the students' futures look grim.
The central question thus becomes can PRP withstand Mobutu's coming offensive with a potentially hostile Tanzania at its back? PRP's army, the Force Armee Populaire, has perhaps 3,000 trained men. Mobutu's American and Belgian trained and equipped force of 49,000 men have attempted to encircle and destroy PRP before with no success.
Mobutu might have already overextended himself. He is committed to make a grab for northern Angola and the Cabina Enclave. It is seriously doubtful that Mobutu's still untested army will be able to fight on two fronts with PRP to the east and UNITA and whatever might remain of MPLA moving against him to the south.
In addition, about 7,000 former Katangese soldiers are in exile in Angola. About half of these crack Katangese are armed. They are staunchly opposed to Mobutu who has offered them amnesty which they have refused. Mobutu has also been trying to get the
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Portuguese to disarm the Katangese and send them back to Zaire. The Katangese might be coming back, but they'll probably be armed.
Mobutu's intervention in Angola is certain to alienate his progressive -- which is not to say revolutionary -- African neighbors and might influence them to work openly against him.
The American Negro Ambassador to Tanzania, W. Beverly Carter (see THE BLACK PANTHER, September 1, 1975), quoted President Nyerere as decrying the PRP kidnapping as a "tool to gain publicity." Indeed, the world does now know that Mobutu is in trouble. But more importantly the workers and peasants in Zaire have also heard that there is successful armed resistance to Mobutu's reign of terror. Former Simbas who served under the martyred Pierre Mulele in Kwilu Province might be inspired to begin the work of clandestine organizing and propaganda in preparation for a reopening of the western front.
In short, with civil war looming over Angola, Kenya in turmoil over the brutal murder of J.M. Kariuki, chaos reigning in Idi Amin's Uganda, and an explosion in the makings that will end for all time talk of detente with South Africa, the PRP kidnapping could be the opening salvo in a new and decisive stage of the African revolution.
TO BE CONTINUED
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The South Pacific islands could soon become "an oceanic wilderness" unless strong action is taken to preserve them. the head of the United Nations Environment Program said recently. Dr. Maurice F. Strong told nations participating in the Pacific Science Congress in Vancouver, British Columbia, that a regional conference should be convened to draw up plans to deal with such problems as soil erosion, climate changes and the death of many unique forms of life. Dr. Strong suggested that military activity -- which has caused many of the environment problems -- by foreign powers be stopped "at least until its consequences can be fully evaluated."
The government of Honduras has cancelled all contracts with and concessions to foreign banana companies. Honduran head of state Col. Juan Melgar Castro declared in a recent nationwide broadcast that the action is "a move to end the special privileges of foreign firms," particularly the U.S. firms of United Brands and Standard Fruit. Castro also announced a plan to extend banana acreage and set up a national banana corporation as soon as possible to carry out the new banana policy. Honduras is the third largest banana Exporter in the world.
A government document formerly labeled "top secret" shows that in 1950, secret political warfare was adopted as a key element at the highest level of government. The document. NSC-68, dated April 14, 1950, was released last spring under the Freedom of information Act. NSC-68 recommended a new and aggressive political, economic and military strategy to fight the Cold War and warned that the balance of economic and military power was gradually shifting in favor of the Soviet Union.
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ENTERTAINMENT: Message To The Motherland
(A poem in memory of Emmanuel Olatunji, see page 7.)
Do not get caught in the snare of the Black man in America;
Stay home o'folk of the motherland.
We are not yet ready for the reunion;
We must prepare for war, war in the name of Allah!
War such as that of Mozambique; Angola, Zimbabwe, and Namibia.
So stay home!
We know of the nature of the beast in this horror house;
You don not. You are deceived by statues of liberties. John Hancock buildings, Harvard universities.
You are deceived by the coral snake of grandeur color but deadly poison.
Stay home! When we are ready we will send for you and welcome you in intercommalnud exchange. But you must stay home, Black man.
You have an infant child (the People's Republic of Mozambique) and fledgling children (the developing countries of Africa) to tend to.
When we are ready, we will send for you. We wish never again to send a slain brother's body back to the motherland.
All Power To The People
Sharif A. Abdel Rahman
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O'JAYS TURN OUT OAKLAND COLISEUM
(Oakland, Calif.) - "Can't nobody touch them. They're the hottest, baddest thing around," was the comment of one visibly satisfied brother after he witnessed the high-flyin' O' Jays literally turn out a crowd of 13,000 at the Oakland Coliseum on August 31.
Star Treatment Production, the promoters of the four and one-half hour dynamite concert which the O'Jays headlined, are to be commended for bringing togather in one night what proved to be the right combination to bring out the Bay Area sellout crowd -- The O'Jays, The Dramatics, Eddie Kendricks and The Moments.
First on the show were the soulful Moments, four handsome young brothers whose mellow harmony had the sisters in the audience "oohing" and "aahing" throughout their performance.
Dressed in flashy three-piece gold and White suits and backed by a fast-moving band, The Moments sang some of their well-known hits, including "Release Yourself," "I Found Love On A Two-Way Street," "I Feel Sanctified," and "Come On Sexy Momma."
The predominantly Black audience cheered at The Moments' introduction to their current hit song, "Look At Me, I'm In Love," which they said, "expresses what we feel about women and love."
Brother Eddie Kendricks -- the "Thin Man" -- followed The Moments and captured the mood of the audience, who were clearly ready to get down and do some righteous jamming.
Eddie's unique falsetto tenor voice is known and loved throughout America and he was at his best at the Coliseum. Accompanied by two foxy sisters, Eddie began his portion of the program with "Keep On Truckin."' He brought the people to their feet, and they bumped, hustled and boogied in the aisles for the rest of the evening.
The love and affection Eddie's fans have for him was beautifully demonstrated when time after time people came to the foot of the stage to shake his hand as he sang.
His tall, lean frame attired in a colorful maroon suit, Eddie brought the house down with a medley of Temptations' hits, including "Just My Imagination," "The Way You Do The Things You Do," "The Girl's All Right With Me," "I'm Gonna Make You Love Me," and "Get Ready."
Following the Temptations' medley, Eddie sang several songs from his best selling album, Hit Man, including "If Anyone Can," "Cream of the Crop," the very beautiful "Time In A Bottle," "Shoeshine Boy," and the ever popular "Boogie." The audience gave Eddie an enthusiastic standing ovation as he left the stage.
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The "Motor City" -- Detroit -- was well represented at the unforgettable show. Eddie Kendricks was followed by five bad brothers also of Detroit, the superb Dramatics.
The Dramatics took top honors for the evening in choreography, executing some skillful dance steps as they melodiously sang such favorites as "Never Gonna Let You Go," "Hey Girl, I Dig Your Music," "Open The Door To Your Heart," "Stars In Your Eyes," "Me, Myself and I," "Love is Missing From Your Life," "Just Didn't Want To Be Lonely," and "Get Up."
Prior to singing one of their greatest hits, "In The Rain," the three-piece red-suited quintet flashed black umbrellas with the words, "We Love You," written in sparkling sequins. Needless to say, the crowd dug that.
No performance by The Dramatics would have been complete without what has proved to be one of the fastest selling hits around, "Me and Mrs. Jones." This love song had the audience on their feet, rocking, swaying and singing throughout their rendition.
The stars of the evening were The O'Jays who gave an inspiring, spellbinding performance. The audience thunderously cheered the talented trio from Cleveland, Ohio, throughout their nearly one-hour, show-stopping performance.
Resplendent in white slacks and red and white jackets and shirts, The O'Jays started off with "Put Your Hands Together" followed by the beautiful "Now That We've Found Love." Each of the O'Jays has a strong, stirring soulful voice which shone through in their solos. The influence of church singing is evident in their style. In fact, although there are only three of them, The O'Jays sound like a whole choir of voices because of the tremendous range of their voices.
The O'Jays are gifted people's artists. Through their well-blended full-piece orchestra, their remarkable songwriters and their own talented voices. The O'Jays have created such popular people's hits as "The Rich Get Richer," "This Air We Breathe," "Give the People What They Want," and "Survival," all of which they delightfully performed at the Coliseum.
Other songs sung by the O'Jays were "992 Arguments," "You Are My Sunshine," "Love Train," "Who Am I?" and "Backstabbers." The crowd went wild when The O'Jays righteously got down with "Wild Flower," a rendition which the trio put their hearts and souls into, as well as their mesmerizing performance of "Just Let Me Make Love To You."
As The O'Jays closed out the concert with "Money, Money," the huge Coliseum was one mass of finger poppin' and swaying crowd of humanity, none of whom who wanted the night to end. But it did end, and thanks go to Star Treatment Production for bringing an unforgettable night of the finest Black entertainment to Oakland.
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Leon Kennedy: People's Artist
(Oakland, Calif.) - A Bay Area artist, Leon Kennedy, visited the offices of THE BLACK PANTHER recently to explain his views on people's art. Through his art, Brother Leon attempts to depict the reality of Black people's oppression. He participated in the Black People's Art Gallery in San Francisco, expressing powerful cultural and political statements on canvas, before financial difficulties closed the Gallery down. Leon's art has been shown in various art shows and schools. In his words, he has made the "hard and important choice to express the truth."
Two of Leon's works are shown above. "The Unforgotten Brothers" (left) portrays the faces of despair and oppression within prison. "Black Sister -- Today" exhibits the shining beauty and strength of Black women.
Leon Kennedy has received critical acclaim for many of his works but has to struggle for recognition because he chose to paint the reality of Black people's lives.
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SPORTS: MARTIAL ARTS
Effective performance requires development of many physiological qualities, such as strength, speed, muscular endurance, circulo respiratory endurance (the joint actions of the heart and lungs), agility and flexibility. But performers possessing lesser degrees of these qualities often out perform stronger and faster opponents because of well coordinated and well-timed neuro muscular patterns (specific skills).
It has been estimated that as little as one-fourth of the energy is required for a highly skilled performer to accomplish the same act as an unskilled performer. Similarly, high levels of the mentioned physiological qualities may be of little use if they are wasted through inefficiency.
Coordination is basically the result of each needed movement occurring in the correct sequence and during the most necessary time interval. When a highly coordinated movement occurs, it appears smooth and rhythmical. Of course, joint movements occur only as the result of muscular contractions, and the muscles only respond to nerve impulses.
Therefore, when a well coordinated movement occurs, it is because the nerve impulses reach the proper muscles with sufficient intensity at the correct time. The muscle contractions then cause movements which constitute a skillful performance.
Ideal timing is shown when each force is applied at the peak acceleration of the previous force (i.e., a punch is delivered through rapid hip rotation, then rapid arm extension).
If a force appears too soon, the momentum (the result of speed and body mass) gained by the preceding force is less than what could have been attained, since the body part did not reach full acceleration.
If the force appears too late, the previous force is already beginning to decelerate, and again momentum is lost.
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OLYMPIC GAMES: “NATIONALISM IN A JOCKSTRAP”
By Paul Hoch
Paul Hoch is a professor specializing in the sociology of sports at Dawson College in Montreal, Canada, Dr. Hoch is also the author of Rip Off The Big Game, an intriguing analysis of the political implications of big-time sport in contemporary society, and a regular contributor to THE BLACK PANTHER.
What Berkeley sociology professor Harry Edwards calls the "plantation atmosphere of American sport, with Black athletes on the bottom and White officials on the top," has already given rise to athletic strikes, boycotts and colleges, as well as threatened boycotts of the last two Olympics. Former Oberlin athletic director Jack Scott says that a nationally prominent track coach told him that unless we can find a way to separate the decent Negroes from the troublemakers and militants, "we're going to stop recruiting all Negroes."
"Football is not a democracy," says University of Pittsburgh coach Carl De Pasqua. "There's nothing to debate. The players can debate in political science class." Syracuse's Ben Schwartzwalder agrees. He says that as a coach, "you have to look upon yourself as a kind of benevolent dictator."
Richard Nixon could hardly have said it better. His press releases on Vietnam constantly depict the war as a sort of football game, in which we are all expected to give undying loyalty to our "military teams," and our field generals." Defense Secretary William Laird described the blockade of Haiphong as "Operation Linebacker." And Nixon, in diplomatic communiqu‚s, refers to himself as "quarterback." Presumably Americans should not disagree to loudly on Vietnam because, as in football, only the quarterback talks in the huddle.
On the other hand, when people like Olympic discus thrower Olga Connolly start complaining about the repressiveness of the sporting establishment, the coaches and writers complain that athletes are becoming "political."
When the two Black American trackmen Wayne Collette and Vince Matthews were evicted from the Munich Olympics, many American sportswriters complained that it was because they were trying to make a political demonstration. This may well be true. But the fact was that the playing of national anthems at an international sporting event supposedly above politics is in itself a highly political act.
The fact was that Collette and Matthews were thrown out, not for anything they did or didn't do in the actual Olympic competition, but because their casual behavior was regarded as an unwarranted interference in what amounted to a political demonstration by the International Olympic Committee. Nor is the Olympic competition itself all that apolitical. Though the actual athletic events themselves are as pure as the driven snow, when you introduce nationalistic TV commentators to root for their national teams, spend millions of dollars on build-up and promotion, fill the stands with thousands and thousands of fans (not to mention the multi-millions of TV watchers around the world), you end up with something which is so overblown and overpublicized that it becomes what the Roman emperors used to call bread and circuses for the masses.
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U.S. To “Aid” Portugal
(Washington, D.C.) - The U.S. has blatantly and openly told the Portuguese government that it is prepared to help airlift 300,000 Portuguese refugees fleeing from Angola in return for undermining the Armed Forces Movement government now in shaky power in Portugal.
A New York Times story quotes informed administration officials as having informed the Portuguese that they were willing to help in the evacuation if there was created in Portugal "a government that Washington feels it can work with."
The report indicates that the U.S. is talking to Lisbon not only about immediate evacuation aid but also about a long-term aid program that would include help for resettling the refugees, more evidence of U.S. government utilization of humanitarian aid for subversive political ends against the interests of the people.
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A PROGRAM FOR SURVIVAL
Provides free medical treatment and preventative medical care for the people.
THE SICKLE CELL ANEMIA RESEARCH FOUNDATION
Established to test and create a cure for Sickle Cell Anemia. The foundation informs people about Sickle Cell Anemia and maintains an advisory committee of doctors researching this crippling disease.
PEOPLE'S FREE DENTAL PROGRAM
Provides free dental check-ups, treatment and an educational program for dental hygiene.
PEOPLE'S FREE OPTOMETRY PROGRAM
Provides free eye examinations, treatment and eyeglasses for the people.
PEOPLE'S FREE AMBULANCE PROGRAM
Provides free, rapid transportation for sick or injured people without time-consuming checks into the patients' financial status or means.
FREE FOOD PROGRAM
Provides free food to Black and other oppressed people.
FREE BREAKFAST PROGRAM
Provides children with a free, nourishing, hot breakfast every school morning.
FOOD COOPERATIVE PROGRAM
Provides food for the people through community participation and community cooperative buying.
Provides free job-finding services to poor and oppressed people.
PEOPLE'S FREE SHOE
Provides free shoes, made at the People's Free Shoe Factory, to the people.
PEOPLE'S FREE CLOTHING PROGRAM
Provides new, stylish and quality clothing free to the people.
Provides news and information about the world and Black and oppressed communities.
LEGAL AID AND
Provides legal aid classes and full legal assistance to people who are in need.
FREE BUSING TO PRISONS PROGRAM
Provides free transportation to prisons for families and friends of prisoners.
FREE COMMISSARY FOR PRISONERS PROGRAM
Provides imprisoned men and women with funds to purchase necessary commissary items.
SENIORS AGAINST A FEARFUL ENVIRONMENT S.A.F.E. PROGRAM
Provides free transportation and escort service for senior citizens to and from community banks on the First of each month.
Provides, with federal government aid, decent, low-cost and high-quality housing for Black and poor communities.
PEOPLE'S FREE PLUMBING AND MAINTENANCE PROGRAM
Provides free plumbing and repair services to improve people's homes.
FREE PEST CONTROL
Free household extermination of rats. roaches and other disease-carrying pests and rodents.
Provides Black and other oppressed children with a scientific method of thinking about and analyzing things. This method develops basic skills for living in this society.
LIBERATION SCHOOLS: FREE MUSIC AND DANCE PROGRAMS
Provides children free supplementary educational facilities and materials to promote a correct view of their role in the society and provides support for the Music and Dance programs of the Oakland Community School.
Provides 24-hour child care facilities for infants and children between the ages of 2 months and three years. Youth are engaged in a scientific program to develop their physical and mental faculties at the earliest ages.
"All these programs satisfy the deep needs of the community but they are not solutions to our problems. That is why we call them survival programs, meaning survival pending revolution."
-- Huey P. Newton
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