List of galleries and other African American related resources - if your gallery is not listed please e-mail me the Name and link. Rest assured that I will be adding to this list as I find the time:

African American History

African American Studies

Art

Business and Culture

African American Biographies

African American History1

African American Culture

Art1

African American History:

 

African American Studies:

  • African American Atelier - a non profit, fine arts gallery providing a showcase for African American art within the Greensboro Cultural Center. Established in 1990, Atlier is an active organization of local artists, collectors, patrons and supporters committed to providing a showcase for African American art
  • African American Artists
    Offers the best deals on African American art prints, gifts, figurines, ebony treasures collectibles, dolls, african arts and crafts and home decor. Save 20 to 50% off retail.
    www.artisanartsonline.com
  • African American Bank Checks
    African American Bank Checks that honor and celebrate life. Get your African American Checks and accessories today.
    www.african-americanchecks.com
  • Paintings and Prints by American Artists
    East Side Art and Antiques buys and sells original paintings and fine prints. We specialize in New England artists from the late 19th to mid-20th century.
    eastsideartandantiques.com
  • African American Shopping Today Website
    African American shopping portal that provides access to Web sites that sell African American related merchandise such as art, books, music and hair care.
    www.brownhorizonsshopping.com
  • Black Report
    Worldwide Black news coverage. 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.
    www.blackreport.com
  • African Americans Network
    Connect with friends and family. Meet other African Americans with similar interests through a trusted circle of friends.
    www.blackintouch.com
  • Soul Planet - African American Tours
    Fun African-American and Black history travel tours to Africa, Brazil, and Paris.
    www.soulplanettravel.com

    Art


  • Wilson Brown
  • Brown Horizons Art
  • The African-American Artists Series: L&S Video
  • The African American Mosaic
  • African Artworld
  • Avisca Fine Art
  • Indigo Impressions
  • Encore Graphics
  • Spence Art
  • Art Jaz Gallery
  • Battista Gallery
  • Aaron Galleries
  • Dolan Maxwell
  • Bourbon Alley Gallery
  • M Hanks Gallery
  • Thelma Harris
  • Hearne Fine Art
  • Martha Henry
  • Bill Hodges
  • Joysmith
  • Jubilee Fine Art
  • Just Lookin
  • Makush Ethiopian Art
  • New Providence Art & Antiques
  • Nicole Gallery
  • G.R. NNamdi
  • Noel
  • Pounder-Kone Art Space
  • Revolution
  • Savacou
  • Merton D Simpson Gallery
  • Sragow
  • Sande Webster
  • Sherry Washington
  • African Beats
  • Parish
  • Multicultural Art
  • Channa Wijesinghe Website
  • Artist Collective
  • Association of African American Museums
  • Black Film Center
  • Collection Shop
  • Organization of Black Designers
  • Paul R Jones Collection
  • Shaco Jazz
  • Artspan -- Contemporary Art & Original Art in online galleries at Artspan. Artspan is a community of artist, artisan and photographer sites.
  • African and African-American art at Yahoo
  • Temple Universities Directory of African American Collections
  • African American art Yahoo directory
  • African American Arts Yahoo directory
  • African American Art Google Directory
  • Afrakana
  • Afrantiquity Design Studio
  • African American Gallery
  • Amana Johnson
  • Afrik Trenda
  • African American Photographic Portraiture
  • Afrofuturism
  • African Crafts
  • Afro Decor
  • Artnoir Showcase
  • Mari Hall Art
  • Art of Color
  • Ashleys World of Painting
  • James Loveless
  • Brian Owens
  • Carrie Art Collection
  • Cato Creations
  • Color Circle Art
  • Chinwe
  • Cush City
  • Damali Ayo
  • D Azi Productions
  • E Art
  • Echo Art
  • Genesisartline
  • Gallery Chuma
  • Kuanita Murphy
  • Multicultural Art
  • Maruva
  • My Fine Art
  • National Black Arts Festival
  • National Gallery of Art
  • Neville Murray
  • NYC Harlem Photo Gallery
  • October
  • Onyx and Opal
  • Opehlias Art
  • Painted Threads
  • Pan African Imagery
  • Passion Place
  • PBS Edmonia Lewis
  • Prophet Art
  • Airport Fine Art
  • Project Row House
  • Quilt Ethnic
  • Raspberry Mills
  • Restoration Arts
  • Egyptian photo gallery
  • Ron Anderson Art
  • RTistic Designs
  • Shades of Art
  • Shani
  • Sonya Walker
  • Dart fine art
  • Summer Galleries
  • Dasa Exotic Art
  • Black Art Visions
  • Synthia Saint James
  • Ted Ellis Art
  • Tema Tribal Art
  • African Trader
  • Alonzo Adams
  • Yoni
  • Katherine Roundtrree
  • Charles Bibbs
  • Things Graphics
  • Tirije
  • Topaz Graphix
  • Tracey Andrews Art
  • Twinataa
  • African American Holocaust -- Warning: The Following Pages Contain Explicitly Graphic Material
  • Wassi Art
  • African Americans in Media
  • African American Odyssey: A Quest for Full Citizenship
  • African American Perspectives
  • The African and Middle Eastern Reading Room Library of Congress
  • Africans in America: America's Journey Through Slaverys
  • Archives of African American Music and Culture at Indiana University
  • Black History Quest
  • The Faces of Science: African Americans in the Sciences
  • Historically Black Colleges & Universities
  • The Internet African American History Challenge
  • Lest We Forget
  • Malcolm X
  • Martin Luther King, Jr.Directory and Martin Luther King, Jr., Papers Project at Stanford
  • National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
  • Ebonics Information Page
  • Cathleen Richardson Bailey: Quilts
  • Romare Bearden Foundation
  • Romare Bearden
  • Thomas Blackshear
  • Michael Brathwaite
  • Ernest Butts, Jr.
  • Paul Collins
  • PLEASANT
  • William Pleasant
  • Faith Ringgold
  • Faith Ringgold: Art in Context
  • Dane Tilghman
  • S.C. Versillee
  • African-Antiques.Com: African art, antiques, and discussion group
  • African Image: Traditional and Contemporary Art and Craft of Africa
  • African-Images: African Tribal Art and Unique Ethnic Gifts
  • African Renaissance
  • Africas Art
  • Articimo: African Art Store
  • Bayly Art Museum: University of Virginia. Also try their Virtual Exhibitions
  • Black Art Prints & Posters - African American Art Galleries Your #1 source for Fine Black Art Prints and Posters by African American and other Ethnic Artists. High Quality, Huge Discounts. www.blackartdepot.com/
  • Brooklyn Museum
  • Dr. Maude Wahlman: Ethnic Studies, Art Department, University of Central Florida
  • African American Media Collection Guide: GMU Libraries
  • Edwidge Danticat - Haitian author Edwidge Danticat literature guide and bibliographic list.
  • Liv Lakay - Liv Lakay aims to publish Haitian literature, original works and translations - resurrecting literary works from the country's rich history, and introducing those of this generation's most promising writers.
  • Naz Poetry Spot - Poetry and Prose of Haitian artist, Hertz Nazaire. Subjects on romance, love, lost, hope, and black women.
  • Tanbou / Tambour: Journal of Haitian politics and literature - Tanbou / Tambour is a journal of Haitian political and literary studies, published in English, French, and Hatian Creole.
  • African American Studies Department
  • African American Studies Research Guide
  • African-American Mosaic
    Resource guide to the Library of Congress's African-American Collection.
  • African American Perspectives: Pamphlets from the Daniel A. P. Murray Collection 1818-1907
  • Civil Rights in Mississippi Digital Archive
  • Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture
  • African American Artists: National Gallery Collection Selected African American Artists at
              the National Gallery of Art
  • African American World Guide to History and Culture - PBS
  • African American Artists: National Gallery Collection
  • African American World Guide to History and Culture
  • Ta-coumba Aiken
  • Carol Lynn Barth
  • John Biggers
  • The Web of Life: The Art of John Biggers
  • Beverly Buchanan
  • Elizabeth Catlett
  • Robert Colescott
  • Michael Cummings
  • Joseph Delaney Joseph Delaney Online
  • Terry Dixon
  • Aaron Douglas
  • Sam Gilliam
  • Paul Goodnight
  • Jonathan Green
  • Renee Green
  • David Hammons
  • Rick Hyman
  • Synthia Saint James
  • William H. Johnson
  • Marie Johnson-Calloway
  • Loïs Mailou Jones
  • Simmie Knox
  • Jacob Lawrence
  • Edmonia Lewis
  • Glenn Ligon: Annotations
  • Kerry James Marshall
  • Dean Mitchell
  • Keith Morrison
  • O. Donald Odita, Nigeria
  • Olu Oguibe
  • John Outterbridge
  • Howardena Pindell
  • Pleasant
  • Noah Purifoy 
  • Faith Ringgold
  • Faith Ringgold1
  • Alison Saar
  • Betye Saar
  • William Edouard Scott
  • Lorna Simpson
  • Henry O. Tanner
  • Dox Thrash
  • Kara Walker
  • Carrie Mae Weems
  • Ellis Wilson
  • Wilson, Madafo Lloyd
  • Hale Aspacio Woodruff
  • Purvis Young
  • James A. Porter
  • Okwui Enwezor

    Business and Culture (w/ art):
  • Afrikaan Manifesto"
    J's Magic presents "Afrikaan Manifesto" a gallery of African American art works.
  • The African American Art & Culture Complex of San Francisco - A San Francisco based complex that encourages appreciation of art and culture through community programs and activities.
  • African-American Linguists :: Promoting World Languages in the African-American Community African-American Linguists is a site dedicated to the promotion of foreign languages in the African-American Community. ... Founder: Tamari Jenkins jenkins@oaal.org. Co-Founder/Webmaster: Krishauna Latay Hines hines@oaal.org. Mailing Address ...
  • The African American Museum in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania - A guide to current and upcoming events, exhibits, lectures, activities, and educational programs.
  • The African American Music and Culture Archives at Indiana University - A guide to Indiana University's research center archives.
  • African American Planning Commission, Inc.The African American Planning Commission is a New York City based 501(C)(3) nonprofit organization committed to ending homelessness and developing ...
  • African-American Opinion.com A weekly journal for discussion & debate on issues affecting African-American communities.
  • African Culture University - A guide to over 3000 ethnic groups, cultures, and languages that emanate from Africa.
  • African Hypertext
  • African-American History Through the Arts - Students at Coral Gables Senior High School, FL trace the history of African Americans.
  • The African-American Mosaic Exhibition (Library of Congress) - This exhibit marks the publication of a Library of Congress resource guide for the study of Black history and culture.
  • Afrofuturism: The Web Site - Explores technological effects on black culture and art. Featuring listserv information, bibliography, filmography, discography, and links.
  • Black Smart.net - An African American online community. Featuring free web servers, chat, forums, vintage movies, art gallery, music, book club, gifts, free genealogy course and more cultural resources.
  • The Center for the Arts of the African Diaspora - A guide to current and upcoming events, exhibits, lectures, activities, educational programs, history and general information.
  • Daathrekh.com - A publishing company featuring science fiction, online comics, flash animated movies, interactive CD Roms, and full length novels.
  • Diversity in the Media and Entertainment industries ... Questions, comments, feedback? Send email to:
  • ETA Creative Arts Foundation - A Chicago cultural resource institution for the preservation and perpetuation of African-American ethnic aesthetic arts. Information about performances, classes, publications, and other programs available.
  • Ghettosoul - An online community featuring collections of Poetry and photographs.
  • Green Dove Black American Resources
    GREEN DOVE. BLACK AMERICAN RESOURCE LINKS. African American Odyssey - highlights related rare books, government documents, manuscripts, maps, musical scores, plays, films, and recordings from the Library of Congress colletion.
  • Gullah Celebration - Annual event showcasing the rich cultural heritage of the Gullah people in the Lowcountry and Beaufort Area of South Carolina. Schedule, information about activities, and opportunities for vendors.
  • Gullah/Geechee Culture - Information the history, language, religion, and traditions of the Gullah, African descendents living off the coast of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida.
  • Hammonds House Gallery and Resource Center - A guide to current and upcoming events, exhibits, lectures, activities, and educational programs at the Atlanta based fine art museum for African American art.
  • Hinson's Afrocentric Resource Guide -- A comprehensive guide to African American, Black, Caribbean and Latino resources on the web.
  • The Harlem Renaissance - A guide to the life, creativity and revolution inspired by the Harlem Renaissance. Featuring the history, general information, and collections of art, poetry, and prose.
  • The Harlem Renaissance brought to you by John Carroll University
  • The InkSpot - Spoken word and music series in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Site features news and upcoming events.
  • KIOSKEN has links to news media all over the world, mainly to newspapers in the countries' own language(s). The links are validated regularly.
  • Minnesota Spokesman-Recorder - Links
    OFFICIAL SITE. SPONSOR. CO-SPONSOR. BUILT BY. LINKS. Black Facts Online. Digital Schomburg Images of 19th Century African Americans. Gateway to African American History from the US Dept.
  • The Name Site - Lists African names with meanings, ethnic origins and pronunciation. Includes African proverbs and ethnic greeting cards.
  • National Conference of Artists, NY Chapter - Organization dedicated to the preservation, promotion and developing of African American culture and the African world experience.
  • Niyae.com - African American DVD's, Books, Cd's,Music, Games, Black ...
    Niyae.com - Online retailer of African American Books, DVD's, Music, Video Games, Black Gospel Stage Plays, Tyler Perry Plays, African American
  • Project Row Houses - A guide to the current and upcoming events of a public art project involving artists on issues of neighborhood revitalization, historic preservation, community service, and youth education.
  • The Urban Griot - Includes essays, interviews and opinions.
  • The Urban Livez Forum - A showcase of urban art, music, spoken word, literature and poetry. Featuring a forum discussion board, Events Calendar, and News. Open amateur submissions welcome.
  • Western States Black Research and Educational Center - The largest private collection of African American culture in the Western United States. The collection includes Black literature, music, film, photographs and memorabilia.
  • Advocacy Group Links 'Paddling' to Slavery
    ... Return to Project NoSpank Table of Contents at www.nospank.net ...
  • African American Web Connection - Black web site listings of churches, businesses, art, entertainment, prominent people, and publications.
  • Afrocenter.com - Directory listings of African American web sites and businesses.
  • Afroroots - Directory of Afro-American resources.
  • Bestblackwebsites.com - Categorized listings of black-owned web sites.
  • Blackcentury.com - Listing of African American web sites.
  • Blackedition.com - Directory of black web site reviews.
  • Blackhoo - Business and cultural links.
  • BlackWebPortal.com - Search engine serving the African-American community.
  • Myblackinfo.com - African American directory of web sites with an events calendar.
  • Ruzivo.com - Meta search engine of African American web sites.
  • Searchblack.com - Search engine for black web sites.
  • Soul Search - Black web site directory with news, games, and free email.
  • The African American Business Directory - Search by state, our comprehensive directory of African American owned businesses and professional resources. Free listing for your black owned business.
  • African American Images - Publisher and distributor of Africentric books that promote self-esteem, collective values, liberation, and skill development.
  • African Village - Directory of African-owned businesses in the United States, mainly in Texas.
  • American Health and Beauty Aids Institute (AHBAI) Online - AHBAI is an internationally renowned trade association representing the world's leading Black-owned companies that manufacture ethnic hair care and beauty related products featuring the Proud Lady Symbol.
  • Ask Recy - Businessman and community activist Recy Dunn answers questions about building your minority business.
  • Berry's Wedding Photography - Primarily serving southeast USA professional photographer is also available for nationwide assignments. See "Photo Gallery" on website.
  • Black Business Group - Provides news, book reviews, and business of the month feature.
  • Black Business Professionals and Entrepreneurs - A network of business owners and executives with a collective interest in discovering resources, contacts and business tools that will help strengthen their position within the global business environment.
  • Black Enterprise Online - offers business news, strategies, information and resources for African American entrepreneurs, corporate executives, managers and professionals.
  • Black Software Sites - Web hosting service.
  • BlackBusinessList.Com - a directory offering free advertising. Listings in various business categories.
  • BlackSeek.com - Directory and search engine of Black businesses and services worldwide. Free listings, web pages and services for all Black business or personal entities.
  • Clay Communications Inc. - A locally owned and operated telecommunications organization specializing in the installation and maintenance of most business telephone systems and related peripheral devices. An Authorized Nortel Reseller.
  • Click-Black.com - A Black-owned web hosting company. Reseller programs.
  • Daughters Of Earth - Mother and daughter owned and operated business in Virginia selling essential oils, perfumes, soaps and incense.
  • Dudley Products - A hair care and cosmetics manufacturer. Dudley Products, Inc. also has 8 schools located in North Carolina, Illinois, Florida, Washington, D.C., Maryland and Zimbabwe, Africa; and provides advanced studies and continuing education.
  • Festival at Sea - African American Themed Cruise Vacations
  • Find A Black Owned Business - Directory of Philadelphia black owned businesses.
  • Gettosake Comics - New urban African American comic/magazine publisher of Urban Epic and Chocolate Thunder.
  • Grazing Media - Providing web site consulting, internet marketing, and web design for African American businesses.
  • Houston Black Business Directory - Directory of African American businesses in the Houston area.
  • Houston Black Directory - Offers a calendar, church and African American business directories, and area information.
  • Isoplus - A hair care products manufacturer.
  • Iva's International Skin Care and Cosmetics
  • iZania - An online networking community dedicated to accelerating the growth of Black-owned businesses. Featuring the iZaniaOnline™ Database of Black-owned businesses and providing networking tools and information for consumers, entrepreneurs and professionals.
  • KD Communications Group - Women-owned communications firm specializing in events management.
  • Living Dangerously - Site offers products and resource links that address police profiling
  • Luster Products Inc. - Luster Products is an African-American owned and operated manufacturer of personal hair care products serving people of African descent.
  • The Network Journal - Black Professional and Small Business News.
  • Nth-Factor - Black history cards with photographs of black people who fought for freedom and dignity of hue-mans throughout history.
  • Our Church Directory - Black owned directory listing service for businesses and religious organizations. Site features three distinct directories. A business directory, a church directory and a directory for professional networks.
  • Playerz World - Sells Hip Hop jewelry. Catalogue, shipping and policies.
  • Power Networking Business Seminar Series - The Power Networking Business Seminar Series is a referral based network which conducts Power Networking Business Seminar events in the New York Metro area.
  • Radiantglow Botanical Skin Care - Manufacturer of Botanical skin and facial products for people of colour.
  • Raspberry Mills Studio - Black art,greeting cards,prints, and home decor by artist Janie McGee. Great prices for original art and inspirational pieces for your home.
  • SEJ Design - A web site design company.
  • Smartsley.com - Provides business process outsourcing solutions for small/medium sized businesses as well as independent contractors and non-profit organizations.
  • Soulo Technologies - A black-owned Information Technology business whose mission is to empower minority businesses by providing them with the technical services they need to compete in today's digital economy.
  • Sugarsbabies.com - Provides nursery decor and accessories that celebrate children of color including crib sets, photo albums, receiving blankets, infant caps.
  • Ted Mebane Photography - Photographer based in Washington D.C. who specializes in photographing models, weddings and Caribbean carnivals.
  • Unitycards.com - A unique advertising company that offers discount rates through a "Unity Card" at participating African-American businesses across the country.
  • Urban Hustler - Black entrepreneur profiles, plus business, financial, political and lifestyle news and features from a Hip Hop Culture perspective.
  • Use Black Owned Black Operated - Directory of Black-owned business, churches and social organizations in the United States, organized by state, city and business category.
  • Vertical Horizons Web Design - Provides web design for all types of business.
  • Ybonie Communications - Specializes in public relations, brand management, image consulting, inter-corporate communications, professional writing: speeches, bios, proposals, press releases and political campaign management.
  • zenbizness.com - Information on entertainment and New York real estate.
  • Black Beach Week - A list of popular events, parties, and destinations for African Americans, and their schedules.
  • Goombay Adventurers - Promotes and plans outdoor adventure and team sports for African Americans in the Washington, DC area.
  • Kunta Kinte Heritage Festival - A family celebration of the heritage, culture, history, arts and cuisine of Africans, African Americans, and African Caribbeans. August, Annapolis, Maryland.
  • An African American Album - Exhibit from the Public Library of Charlotte and Mecklenburg County features photographs reflecting life in the years before 1950.
  • African American Album Vol.2 - Presents the history of Charlotte-Mecklenburg County North Carolina's Black community from 1940 to the 1990s through photographs, oral history, audio and video.
  • African American Historical Text Archive - Collection of articles and historical documents.
  • African American History and Culture - Articles on historical achievements and educational interactive trivia game relating to black history.
  • African American Newspapers The 19th Century CD-ROM - Searchable database contains a comprehensive collection of nineteenth-century newspapers.
  • African American Pamphlets - The Daniel A. P. Murray Pamphlet Collection presents a review of history and culture spanning almost one hundred years. Among the authors represented are Frederick Douglass, Booker T. Washington, Ida B. Wells-Barnett, Benjamin W. Arnett, Alexander Crummel, and Emanuel Love.
  • African American Resources at the Cincinnati Historical Society Library - Guide to 20th Century African American individuals, organizations and topics from the Greater Cincinnati area. Find books, articles, photographs and manuscripts.
  • African American Resources at the Maryland State Archives - An archived history of black people in the state Maryland.
  • African American World - Presents the broad range of the black experience in the United States, from the Harlem Renaissance to the ongoing debate over affirmative action.
  • African Americans at World's Fairs and Expositions - Information from the World's Columbian Exposition of 1893 to the Negro Historical and Industrial Exposition of 1915.
  • African Americans in History - A brief biographical sketch of several key figures in African American history.
  • African Americans in the Anti-Imperialist Movement - The effect of the anti-imperialist movement on African Americans.
  • African Americans on Wall Street - Book chronicling the work of African American pioneers who broke social and racial barriers on Wall Street.
  • African-American History - Jessica McElrath features many biographical sketches and stories of notable events and time periods. Her collection of photographs from the various periods is extensive.
  • African-American Women On-line Archival Collections - Provides memoirs of Elizabeth Johnson Harris, born in Augusta, Georgia in 1867; letters of Hannah Valentine and Lethe Jackson, house slaves in Abingdon, Virginia; and a letter written by Vilet Lester, a slave in North Carolina from the Special Collections at Duke University.
  • AfricanAmericans.com - Historic guide about African Americans including their culture, society, education, entertainment, and lifestyle.
  • African-Native Genealogy and History - Celebrating the Estelusti ~ The Freedmen ~ Oklahoma's Black Indians of the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole Nations.
  • Africans in America - A collection of images, documents, stories, biographies and commentaries depicting America's journey through slavery.
  • Afrigeneas Archives - Monthly Archives of African Ancestored Genealogy Discussion at Mississippi State University.
  • Afro-American Almanac - Presents a historical perspective of a nation, its people, and its cultural evolution.
  • The American Experience: Jubilee Singers - Traces the history of the choir of former slaves who toured the US and Europe to raise funds to keep Fisk University operating.
  • American Experience: Marcus Garvey - Documentary Marcus Garvey: Look For Me in the Whirlwind. Explores the life of the brilliant, yet controversial black leader.
  • Behind the Scenes - 1868 autobiography of Elizabeth Keckley, who went from slavery to the White House where she served Mary Todd Lincoln.
  • Black Facts - Offers a free, searchable database of events in black history.
  • Black History Pages - Stories from black history presented every day, with links to books and other resources.
  • Black History Review - Honors African American achievement and teaches history. Includes biographical sketches and book and movie reviews.
  • Black History Site - Includes articles and book reviews about black history and how the different races and genders fought hard to ensure that the struggle for equality by black Americans did not falter.
  • Black History Treasure Hunt - This lesson planning site article, hosted by Education Worldweb, has 4 tests on African American history for students ranging from the 4th grade to the 9th.
  • Black Indians and Pioneers - William Loren Katz shares his research on black Indians through essays, articles, tributes and photographs.
  • 1,001 Black Inventions - Provides historical plays and programs about the vast intellectual accomplishments of African Americans.
  • Black Inventors Then and Now - Inventions and profiles from the 1700s to date.
  • Black People & Their Place In World History - Read this summary of research by Dr. Leroy Vaughn about "Black Wall Street" in Tulsa, Oklahoma, black inventors, and possible Negro ancestry of five US presidents.
  • Blacks in Alaska History - Alaska History Project is dedicated to the pursuit of any information or historical photographs documenting the involvement of Blacks in the history of Alaska.
  • Cane River Creole Colony - History of the Creole descendants of "CoinCoin and Thomas Pierre Metoyer." Includes research information, genealogy, photos, events, database, history, and discussion forum.
  • Charleston Black Heritage - Charleston, SC guide for black history features history, gullah and geechee culture, points of interest, churches and a calendar of events.
  • Christine's Black History Pages - Directory of black history with over two dozen categories full of resources.
  • Christine's Genealogy Website - Numerous historical references including emigrants to Liberia, slave sales, and manumission records.
  • Chronicling Black Lives in Colonial New England - The Christian Science Monitor tells some of the stories of black people enslaved in New England prior to the American Revolution.
  • Conceive Believe Achieve - Non-profit organization provides photographic displays and syllabus to educate and promote tolerance and justice.
  • A Deeper Shade of Black - Database of historical facts about black people and events. Includes film reviews.
  • Experience The Past - Resource for Black History with links, articles, and guestbook.
  • Fanny Kemble and Pierce Butler - PBS provides a biographical sketch of this British actress who married a Georgia slaveholder and became an influential abolitionist.
  • Father Ryan Black History Sites - African American military history, journalism, and Harlem Renassaince.
  • Footsteps African American History - A magazine that celebrates the heritage of African Americans and explores their contributions to our culture.
  • Freedmen and Southern Society Project - Documenting the history of emancipation during the era of the American Civil War, in the words of the participants themselves.
  • Gallery of Greats - Calendar program honors great African-Americans.
  • Gateway to African American History - A comprehensive and well-annotated listing of sources about African American History.
  • Hallowed Ground - Smithsonian Magazine investigation of old grave sites in New England is unearthing hard truths about Yankees and slavery.
  • Historic White Rock Cemetery - Historic African-American cemetery under restoration in Lynchburg, Virginia. Searchable gravesite database.
  • The History Makers - Includes biographical information and audio and video clips about African Americans who have influenced history.
  • History of African American Newspapers - A project of The Reflector Newspaper, this page overviews the history and influence of black-run newspapers from before the Civil War to the present.
  • History of St. Mary's County Maryland - Records the significant contributions of African-Americans in the development of St. Mary's County, Maryland.
  • Images of African Americans from the 19th Century - A collection of historical pictures from the New York public library.
  • The Impact of Dred Scott - During the 1850's, a black slave from Missouri claimed his freedom on the basis of seven years of residence in a free state and a free territory. Read the history of one of the most famous and controversial Supreme Court decisions ever taken and its effect on the next several years.
  • The Internet African American History Challenge - An Internet-based curriculum enhancement tool for black history education programs.
  • Kemet Nu Productions - Lectures, video, and audio tapes that link ancient Africa with African American history.
  • Mary Ellen Pleasant - Tells the story of the remarkable life of Marry Ellen Pleasant who was called the mother of Civil Rights.
  • The Mis-Education of the Negro - A short version of the original book consisting of outlines and notes.
  • Nat Love - The life and times of famous African American cowboy Nat Love. Includes key chapters from his "Adventures of Deadwood Dick" autobiography.
  • New Philadelphia: A Pioneer Town - The New Philadelphia Association researches, preserves and celebrates the history of New Philadelphia, Pike County, Illinois. Tells the story of former slaves who built a racially integrated town before the Civil War.
  • New Philadelphia Illinois Historic Town - Dr Juliet E K Walker commemorates Free Frank McWorter who, born a slave in 1777, founded the first black town.
  • The Ol' Auction Block in Luray, VA. - Through the years the story of the slave block has been kept alive by word of mouth among the inhabitants of the Shenandoah Valley.
  • Our Shared History - A comprehensive project of The National Park Service to preserve and interpret African American history.
  • Roberts Settlement - Briefly tells the story of Roberts Settlement in Indiana, founded in the mid 1800's by Elijah Roberts and his family.
  • Seacoast New Hampshire Black History - The history of African Americans in New Hampshire.
  • Small Towns Black Lives - Photographic documentary, art and history project of African American communities in southern New Jersey.
  • South Carolina African American History - Honors African-American achievers from South Carolina. Honors a different person each month with a brief biography.
  • The Southern Experience in 19th Century America - The narrative of Bethany Veney.
  • Stamps on Black History - Covers the history of US Postal Stamps celebrating black history.
  • Terryhowcott - A Black, progressive, independent, openly inclusive, writing intensive, artistic online experience. Among other things, Terryhowcott.com hosts two community building galleries, a significant Black culture gallery, a publishing area, "A Thinker's Greenspace," and one of the most amazing opening flash presentations online.
  • Time Line of African American History - A time line of African American history (1852-1880) from the Library of Congress.
  • The Trials of The Scottsboro Boys - Information and analyses on the struggle for justice of nine teenage boys accused of the gang rape (in 1931) of two white girls in Alabama, and their several legal trials in the 1930s.
  • Tucson's African American Community - Oral histories, photographs, and texts.
  • Tulsa Reparations Coalition - The Report by the Oklahoma Commission to Study the Tulsa Race Riot of 1921. The Coalition is working to get reparations.
  • Where in the heck is Allensworth, CA - Historical account on Colonel Allen Allensworth and the town named after him.
  • NPR : Hidden Museum Treasures: Fortune's Bones - A small museum in Waterbury, Connecticut, is struggling with a big question: what to do with a set of human remains in its collection. Harriet Baskas reports on a real skeleton in the closet, the bones of a slave named Fortune. Hear an excerpt from a poem about Fortune's life. Part of the Hidden Treasures Radio Project series. [5:06 Realaudio broadcast] (September 16, 2003)
  • Abbycon.com's Directory - Advertisements and links to four websites.
  • Big Ralph: Reflections of a Black Police Chief - Text from a book about a Black police chief in Chattanooga, Tennessee.
  • Black History and Literature - Literature and history written by and on African Americans.
  • Black Literature - An online community for books about, for and by African Americans. Mystery, Romance, Biography.
  • The Book of American Negro Poetry - James Weldon Johnson's 1922 anthology of poems from the start of the Harlem Renaissance.
  • Books and Other Stuff - Specializing in the sale of first editions, used and rare books, historical documents, and ephemera, artifacts, magazines and newspapers, pictures and photographs by and about African Americans.
  • de Letrice, Inc.: Where Words Come to Life - Showcases the poetry and prose of award-winning author Denitra Letrice Ross.
  • Diva Productions, Inc - A site providing African-American children and cookbook information including author and book descriptions.
  • Essence of Womanist: Black Women Writers - Women's studies students at Howard University compile commentary and links on noted "womanist" writers of the modern era.
  • Photos without the hassle Digital, photo, mobile, technology, instant photos, orlando, FL, Fuji, sony, Photography, convention, church, portrait, wedding, party, special event.
  • Holloway House Publishing - Publisher of modern African American literature, non-fiction and biographies of famous Black Americans. Modern classics by Iceberg Slim, Donald Goines, and Odie Hawkins.
  • The Ralph Ellison Project at Jerry Jazz Musician - Site features interviews many prominent Ellison scholars, including Stanley Crouch, John Callahan, Robert O'Meally.
  • Rap Sheet.com - The Hottest Hip Hop Site On The Internet - Hip-Hop community entertainment news and reviews.
  • Ruby McCollum - Provides a preview of the true-crime story that shook the foundations of the Segregationist South. The Trial of Ruby McCollum is written by an author who knew all of the characters.
  • Shifting - The Double Lives of Black Women in America - Book about the African American Women's Voices Project offers insight into the psychology of Black women.
  • Standing on the Promises - Features Darius Gray and Margaret Young's historical fiction trilogy recounting the migration of Black Mormon pioneers to the West. Includes story background, reviews, and links to related information.
  • Tracy's Crystal Staircase of Literature - African American literary reviews and poetry, profiles of authors, and little known African American literary "did you know" information.
  • University of Virginia etext Center: African-American - Online texts of literature by or about African-Americans. Some texts restricted to University users only.
  • Voices From the Gaps - Literature site "focusing on the lives and works of women writers of color."
  • Wendy Coakley-Thompson - Bio, audio and written excerpts, tour information, and e-mail from the author of Back to Life
  • You Never Know - Women in Motion, acting publicist for Roxann Latimer, introduces this book's author and includes a synopsis and excerpts from the book.
  • The Zora Neale Hurston / Richard Wright Foundation - The Foundation's mission is to nurture and sustain writers of African descent. Programs and services preserve the legacy and ensure the future of African-American writing.
  • African and Black Issues Forum - Forum for the discussion of African, Pan African and Black issues, unity, and life.
  • African-American History: The Black Panthers - Documents and interviews in reference to the original Black Panther Party of the 1960s and early 1970s.
  • All-African People's Revolutionary Party - In the tradition of the Black Power movement the party seeks the unity of all Africans throughout the world.
  • Alternative News & Information - Mathaba.Net - Alternative news and information network focusing on Libya, Africa, Islam and African America.
  • Azanian Peoples Organization - South African party adhering to the principles of the Black Consciousness Movement.
  • The Basis of Black Power - Position paper written by Stokely Carmichael for the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee which coined the term "Black Power".
  • Black Nationalism - An excerpt from chapter nine of The Black Experience in America.
  • Black Nationalism on Campus - Atlantic Monthly article with students arguing that black nationalism and assimilation are not the opposites they appear to be.
  • Black Power - Offers a brief overview of the political movement that arose in the middle 1960s.
  • Black Radical Congress (BRC) - Purpose is to promote dialogue among African American activists and scholars on the left; to discuss critical issues on the national and international scene that pertain to the Black community; to explore new strategies and directions for progressive political, social and cultural movements; and to renew the Black radical movement through increased unified action.
  • Found Brethren Of Kush - Black Nationalist group founded in Queens, NY to fight police brutality. Links to online discussion group.
  • Huey P. Newton Foundation - Community-based, non-profit research, education, and advocacy center dedicated to fostering progressive social change. Site includes information on Newton and the Black Panther Party.
  • International People's Democratic Uhuru Movement (InPDUM) : Atlanta Branch - Organizes around the question of democratic rights for African people, and the understanding that self-determination is the highest expression of democracy.
  • Know Thy African Self - A very simple website that promotes black racism.
  • Mathaba.Net - Black - Directory of black nationalist websites.
  • New Heaven - This site is dedicated to the Nation of Gods and Earths (a Black Muslim group). This site is specifically dedicated to those interested in this Nation in Connecticut.
  • Onepeoples - A Black Nationalism site that examines news and issues, promotes unity among religions namely Muslims, Black Hebrew Israelites, Akans, Yorubas and Rastafarians.
  • Philadelphia: Black Nationalism on Campus - Article from the January 1993 issue of The Atlantic Monthly.
  • Versions of Afrocentrism - Discusses the work of Dr. Wilson Moses and the differences between Afrocentrism, Egytocentrism and Black Nationalism.
  • Carter G. Woodson Collection - Queens Borough Public Library - 2000+ volume reference collection covers different aspects of the African-American experience, culture, and life.
  • Dudley Education - Provides training in cosmetology, skin care, manicuring and salon management.
  • Keepers Of The Culture - A Philadelphia-based Afrocentric storytelling group.
  • Moyo Nguvu Cultural Arts Center - Information on Afrikan martial arts, rites of passage and Kwanzaa, chat.
  • Southern Conference On African American Studies - State-wide African American History and Culture program at Texas Southern University.
  • African American Planet - Membership based community featuring personals, message board, and resource directory.
  • African American Women Online - Online community for African American Women. Links to many other sites of interest.
  • AfricanAmerica.org - A online community devoted to warm interaction, stimulating intellectual exchange, growth, and fun.
  • AfrikanaLouisiana.com - African American community reviewing issues on health, family, education, finance, spirituality, food, and celebrations.
  • Afro-Netizen - Message forum featuring news, events, and opportunities.
  • BET - Resource for news, career, entertainment, and lifestyle information for the African American community.
  • Black Alliance - Portal features personals, web site directory, classifieds, and chat.
  • Black America Web - African American perspective on news, travel, entertainment, business, technology, and sports.
  • Black City - Free email, search engines, chat, bulletin boards.
  • Black Ebony - Promotes black issues, experiences and creativity. Features include book reviews, black history, and health issues.
  • Black Find - Members can create their own webpage, send and receive notes, and interact with others via message forums.
  • Black Haven - Online forums dedicated to ETHNOcentric discussions of issues pertaining to the African diaspora.
  • Black Men In America - Showcases a forum for visitors to express themselves and exchange information.
  • Black Network - Black culture, entertainment, black music, television, black news, politics, and African American love and romance on the web.
  • Black Pages Today - Various topic channels including beauty, business, women, and movie reviews.
  • Black Talks - Message board discussing news, entertainment, and sports.
  • Black Voices - An online community and career center for African-Americans.
  • Blackapolis - Resources for professionals including a business directory, news, classifieds, and message board.
  • BlackOmahaOnline.com - African American portal for Omaha, Nebraska. Includes message forums, classifieds, and chat.
  • Blackpeeps.com - Online community for African Americans with chat, games, free email, and message boards.
  • Blacksinvegas.com - Message board, games, business directory, and news.
  • Blaq Talk - Message board discussing various issues.
  • Boarhog - Online community where registered members share knowledge, information, visions, opinions and solutions for the betterment of the global African-American community.
  • BuppieNetwork.com - Comprehensive web site for Blacks and other ethnic communities. Includes message forums, personal homepages, and chat.
  • City-Alert.com - Social information source for urban professionals. Offers city based guide to African American Resources.
  • The Cocoa Lounge - Free membership based community to discuss various topics ranging from politics to entertainment.
  • Dallas Black - Featuring the Dallas/Ft.Worth African-American community.
  • Diamonds World - Directory of links, page builder resources, clip art, and games.
  • Ebony Love - Message boards, art, music, chat and movies.
  • EbonyFire.com - Offering free email, forums, resources, and shopping.
  • Ebonyvoices.com - Online community with many features including message forums, articles, entertainment, and news.
  • Good Peoples - Inspirational messages, jokes, and an index of Black websites.
  • illutopia - Online poetry, radio station, and community devoted to black conscious literature.
  • Lolloheads - Features classifieds ads, free email, message board, and interactive polls.
  • Matah Chat - Online chat with cartoon characters.
  • Milwaukee Black Online - Providing Milwaukee with listings black events, businesses, and news.
  • Mybrotha.com - Dedicated to providing information, education and entertainment resources for men.
  • Ol Skool - African american discussion forum. Topics include relationships, sports, poetry and music.
  • Seeingblack.com - African American portal with articles, message boards, free email, chat, and events calendar.
  • Youngandblack.net - Features articles, reviews, games, and links.
  • African American Art - Offers a selection of art, including prints, figurines, and dolls.
  • African Global Market Enterprise, Inc. - Clothing, travel, beauty, music and toys.
  • African Imports - Including Kente cloth, stoles, embroidery clothing, drums, wood carvings, baskets, beads and leather.
  • Black-Gifts.com - Art, greeting cards, calendars and gifts.
  • Body In Black - Online gallery specializing in unique gifts including artwork and artwear.
  • Creations by Lilian - Custom designed and handmade jewelry, handbags, and artifacts.
  • Cultural Treazures - Handmade Afrocentric cloth dolls, unique doll pins, and fabric.
  • Cushcity.com - Offering books, videos, audiobooks, software, calendars, and audiotapes.
  • Ethnic By Design - Art, postes, journals, and mouse pads.
  • For families Like Us - Products, poetry and email.
  • Frederick Douglass Designs - Greeting cards and gifts.
  • Grapevine Card Company - Greeting cards that feature full-color photos and text that uses the nuances and idioms of African American/urban "talk".
  • Its a Black Thing - Coffee mugs, mouse pads, board games, jigsaw puzzles, crosswords, figurines, glassware, ice buckets, movie posters, and jewelry.
  • Little Africa - Offers books, gallery, games and beauty.
  • Multicultural Checks.com - Multicultural and Afrocentric personal checks.
  • NetNia - Retailer of software containing Afrocentric literature.
  • R&R Traders - authentic African collectibles
  • Sista Thing Cards - Inspirational and humorous greeting cards for any occasion or sentiment.
  • StreetKats.com - Videos concerning Freaknic, Black Bike Week, and other forms of entertainment.
  • Tribal Spirit Inc. - Offering t-shirts, accessories and maps.
  • Wilson Brown Gallery - Paintings, figurines, calendars, journals and novelties.
  • African American Web Ring - Network of black related web sites.
  • African Descendant's Webring - Linking websites and people of African Descent.
  • Afro American Webring - Focused on the culture of African Americans online.
  • Black Voices Interactive Chat WebRing - Interactive frontend to a Yahoo webring with site awards.
  • Black-network.com - Portals to resources, culture, history, entertainment, music, news, politics, and African American love and romance.
  • PBS: Africans in America, Part 1, The Terrible Transformation   - Numerous articles tracing the origins of American slavery from the European incursion into Africa to mid 18th century America, maps, timelines, illustrations.
  • African American Journey - From Africa to America. World Book has prepared the story of African Americans, detailing the journey from Africa to slavery, emancipation, and the struggle for civil rights.
  • African American Odyssey: Slavery--The Peculiar Institution (Part 1) - Library of Congress exhibit explores the methods used by Africans and their American-born descendants to resist enslavement, as well as to demand emancipation and full participation in American society.
  • African American Voices - Collection of educational articles, with quotations from primary source documents, on the history and experience of slavery. By Steven Mintz of the University of Houston.
  • African Americans at Jamestown - Timeline of the legislation which carried into law the evolution of American slavery. Includes bibliography of further reading.
  • The African-American: A Journey from Slavery to Freedom - Collection of articles published by the B. Davis Schwartz Memorial Library of Long Island University summarizing American slavery. Includes timelines, biographies and links to further reading.
  • Ama, a Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade - Companion web-site to Manu Herbstein's historical novel, Ama, a Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade, winner of the 2002 Commonwealth Writers' Prize Best First Book Award. The web-site contains background texts, references and material on issues such as racism and reparations.
  • American Slavery: A Composite Autobiography - The authoritative collection of WPA slave narratives.
  • Boston Abolitionist Sermon regarding the Fugitive Slave Bill - Abolitionist Sermon delivered October 20, 1850 at Tremont Street Church, Boston by Rev. Nathaniel Colver. "The Fugitive Slave Bill, or, God's Laws Paramount to the Laws of Men." Image files of original 24 page booklet.
  • Captive Passage - Tells the epic maritime story of how enslaved Africans were transported from the coasts of Africa to American shores.
  • Chronology On The History Of Slavery, 1619-1789 - this page contains a timeline of slavery in America from 1619 until "the end", reportedly in 1865 when the 13th amendment to the Constitution offered universal manumission and abolished slavery. The chronology has been thoroughly researched, with references at the end of each entry, some pointing to other Web resources.
  • Click2History: Slave Voices - Links to original source materials, hundreds of organized pictures and graphics which tell the story of American slavery from the slaves' perspective.
  • The Dred Scott Case - Dred Scott, a fifty year-old slave, and his wife Harriet filed suit for their freedom in the St. Louis Circuit Court. The disposition of this case, and its infamous ruling, contributed to the tensions leading to the Civil War.
  • EH.Net Encyclopedia: Slavery in the United States - Jenny B. Wahl describes the spread of slaveholding, its legal and social framework and markets and prices. Includes graphs and tables of statistics.
  • Fortune's Story: Slavery in a Connecticut Town - Fortune was an African American man enslaved in Waterbury, a Connecticut farming community, in the 18th century. Mattatuck Historical Society tells the story of his life, the world he lived in, and what happened to his skeleton after he died.
  • Ghost Amendment: The Thirteenth Amendment that Never Was - Article describing a pro-slavery constitutional amendment proposed by Congress in 1861.
  • How the Cradle of Liberty Became a Slave-Owning Nation - Detailed article published by the Washington Post on the origins of American slavery, from its origins in European ignorance towards Africans at the time of European exploration, to George Washington's vested interests in the institution.
  • North American Slave Narratives - Slave narratives from the beginning of American slavery until the 1920's. Published by the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
  • Original Slave Trade Documents from the 18th and 19th Centuries - This site provides access to raw data and documentation on a variety of slave trade topics from the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries. Published by the Data and Program Library Service
  • Requests from Ex-slaves for Pensions from Ex-slaveowners - What happened to the strange relationships between slaves and those who claimed to own them -- after their emancipation by the 13th Amendment? Evidence from the William Preston family papers shows several intriguing aspects.
  • The Roots of American Slavery: A Bibliographical Essay - Bibliographical essay by Philip J. Schwarz, Department of History, Virginia Commonwealth University. Lists many books on the subject with comments on the contents and value.
  • Sixteen Largest County Slave Owners in the U.S. in 1860 - From the 1860 U.S. slave census, data on slavery and a list of the 16 slaveholders who held 500 or more slaves in any single County. Includes citation to sources.
  • Slave Badges - Preview of and supplement to the book, Slave Badges and the Slave-Hire System in Charleston, South Carolina, 1783-1865.
  • Slaveholders and African Americans 1860-1870 - List of large slaveholders from 1860 County slave census, and surname matches for African Americans on 1870 census, with an alphabetical index of holders of 10% of all slaves in the U.S.
  • Slavery, Abolition, and Emancipation - Resources for the study of slavery, abolition, and emancipation, including slave narratives, biographies of abolitionists, images, poetry, links, and further readings.
  • Slavery in the North - Douglas Harper describes the growth, end, and consequences of slaveholding in the Northern colonies of what became the United States.
  • The University of Southern Florida Africana Heritage Project - Search for records that document the names and lives of slaves, freedpersons and their descendants.
  • A. Philip Randolph Pullman Porter Museum - Information about the African American labor history museum located in Chicago, with traveling exhibit schedule and gift shop.
  • The Acacia Collection Gallery and Museum - Features a rich collection of African American artifacts, including textiles, tools, and art. Located in Savannah, GA.
  • African American Museum - Devoted to the preservation and display of artistic, cultural and historical materials, including an extensive folk art collection. Includes exhibit details, events, a staff directory, memberships, an admission policy, hours, and directions. Located in Dallas, Texas, United States.
  • African American Museum - Located in Cleveland, Ohio and founded for the preservation and dissemination of information regarding the contributions of individuals of African descent.
  • The African American Museum in Philadelphia - Displays about the political, religious, family life, Civil Rights movement, arts and entertainment, sports, medicine, architecture, law and technology of African Americans.
  • The African American Museum of the Arts - Located in DeLand, Florida, houses a revolving gallery where visitors will find works of both established and emerging artists.
  • Anacostia Museum - Museum and center for African American history and culture.
  • Arna Bontemps African American Museum and Cultural Arts Center - The birthplace home of Arna Wendell Bontemps, a noted Black poet, author, anthologist, and librarian.
  • Association of African American Museums - A nonprofit membership organization serving the interests and needs of black museums and cultural institutions, and black museum professionals.
  • Birmingham Civil Rights Institute - Located in Alabama as a center for education and discussion about civil and human rights issues.
  • Black American West Museum and Heritage Center - Offers historical artifacts, documents and memorabilia which tell the history and relate the stories of Black men and women who helped settle and develop the American West.
  • Black Fashion Museum - Non-profit institution that serves as a repository for antique and recent garments that have been designed, made, and/or worn by people of color. Includes membership, upcoming events and contacts. Located in Washington, DC.
  • Boston African American National Historic Site - Comprised of 15 pre-Civil War structures in Boston's Beacon Hill neighborhood. Information on activities, downloadable PDF maps and directions to the area are provided.
  • Calaboose African-American Museum - San Marcos museum offers a look at the roles African Americans have filled in law, medicine, science and exploration.
  • California African-American Museum - Treasures of African American art, history and culture. Located in Los Angeles.
  • Central Pennsylvania African American Museum - A collection of objects, artifacts, arts, papers, books, photographs, that document and describe the history and culture of African Americans in the new world, with an emphasis on Reading, Berks and surrounding counties African American history and culture.
  • The Charles H. Wright Museum of African American History - Located in Detroit, Michigan and features exhibit galleries, a theater, classrooms, a research library, multi-purpose rooms and a museum store.
  • Chattanooga African American Museum - A collection of multi-media presentations, rare artifacts, African Art, original sculptures, paintings, musical recordings and local Black newspapers. Includes admission fees, hours and directions. Located in Chattanooga, Tennessee.
  • Dunbar House State Historic Site - The memorial's permanent exhibit spans many stages of the writer's life, from the shy, wide-eyed young poet of youth to the national spokesman he became.
  • DuSable Museum of African American History - America's foremost museum of African American history. Founded in 1957 by Dr. Margaret T. and Charles G. Burroughs on the south side of Chicago.
  • Idaho Black History Museum - Focuses on the history and culture of African Americans and presents exhibits, provides educational and outreach programs, and maintains a speakers bureau and community calendar. Includes hours and location in Boise.
  • Ile Ife Museum - the Arthur Hall Collection - Contains art and artifacts that trace the migration of African people from the shores of West Africa to Haiti and the Caribbean. Located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
  • Jim Crow Museum of Racist Memorabilia - Features 4,000-piece collection of racist artifacts. Visitation is offered only as part of a university-approved academic course, workshop, or seminar. Located in Ferris State University, Big Rapids, Michigan.
  • Lawnside Historical Society, Inc. - Nonprofit caretaker of the Peter Mott House in Lawnside, New Jersey, an African-American history museum that was a station along the Underground Railroad. Describes board of directors, membership, events, and details about visiting.
  • Lucy Craft Laney Museum of Black History - Promotes the legacy of the educator Ms. Lucy Craft Laney through art and history. Includes details of exhibits, calendar, special programs, hours of operation, admission fees and directions. Located in Augusta, Georgia.
  • Museum of Afro-American History Boston - Museum dedicated to preserving, conserving and accurately interpreting the contributions of African Americans.
  • National Afro-American Museum and Cultural Center - Located near Dayton, Ohio, the museum's permanent exhibition is titled, From Victory To Freedom: Afro-American Life in the 1950s. Exploring African American experiences in America's history from 1945 with the ending of World War II, to 1965 with passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1964.
  • The National Civil Rights Museum - Offers an overview of the civil rights movement in exhibit form.
  • The National Underground Railroad Museum - Maysville, Kentucky local effort to preserve and display artifacts that chronicles the life on the Underground Railroad.
  • Ozarks Afro-American Heritage Museum - Displays art and artifacts representing the contributions of Blacks. The collection includes quilts and furniture created by slaves and their descendants, hand-built furniture and photos. Includes hours and directions. Located in Ash Grove, Missouri.
  • Slave Relic Museum - Exhibits artifacts that were made and used by enslaved Africans from 1750 to the mid 1800's. Includes photo tour, calendar of events, hours, admission fees, and directions. Located in Walterboro, South Carolina.
  • Tubman African American Museum - Located in Macon, Georgia, was founded in 1981 and named in honor of Harriet Tubman, but is dedicated to educating people about all aspect of African American art, history and culture.
  • Bound For The Promised Land: Harriet Tubman, Portrait of an ...Website for biography by historian Kate Clifford Larson. Includes a chronology of her subject's life, accounts of the Underground Railroad, photos, ...
  • The African American Experience - A Research Quilt - Introduces research process as students investigate contributions of African American leaders of the 1900s. Each student constructs a quilt square, highlighting the achievements of an individual.
  • African Americans 1800~1870 - Lesson plan developed with National Endowment for Humanities "Crafting Freedom" Workshop. Mission of site is to focus on free blacks during antebellum era-to guide teachers & students through factual content showing them how to conduct research using a variety of sources and strategies.
  • African-American Folk Tale, "Sister Becky's Baby," Black History - Lesson plan and video dramatization on VHS of NC African-American folk tale written by Charles Chesnutt, early Black writer who expanded on slave lore, providing not only an example of late 19th century Black literature, but a near approximation of literature from antebellum slaves. Applicable to a wide age range.
  • Black History Month Guide from Dorseyville Middle School, Pittsburgh, PA - Over 200 links to history articles and biographies of leaders and noted African Americans in all fields of endeavor.
  • Black History Month lesson plans - Learning Network provides a cross-curricular thematic unit of lesson plans and online supplemental resources for teaching black history to K-12 students.
  • Chicago's Black Metropolis--About This Lesson - Use this classroom-ready lesson plan to examine the history of this 'city-within-a-city', a self-supporting African American community that prospered from the late 19th century until the 1930s.
  • Education Planet History,United States History,African-American History Page - Lists many links to articles on Black history.
  • Endangered Traditions: South Carolina and the Gullah - Webquest created by the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center for grades 9-12.
  • A History of African Americans of Delaware and Maryland's Eastern Shore - An online collection of essays, which includes six corresponding lesson plans.
  • In Quest of Black History - Lesson plan from Onate High School, NM. Students use Encarta resources to research contributions made by African Americans to American life and society and write an editorial on Black History Month.
  • Lesson Exchange: Famous Black Americans (Elementary, History) - From White Oak Elementary School, Edenton, North Carolina. Objective: At the end of this lesson, the student will be able to recognize famous Black Americans and their roles in America's society.
  • Lesson Plan Links - Nearly a dozen links to Black history sites. Gregory A. Levitt, University of New Orleans.
  • Lesson Plans -- Antislavery Sentiments -- (9-12, World History) - Lesson plan investigating the Amistad case in depth. Provides a summary of the historical record, suggests research and provides links.
  • Slavery and Freedom Literature - Kathleen L. Nichols' extensive resource guide prepared for a class taught at Pittsburgh State University but very useful for anyone doing research on slavery.
  • African-American Inventors [ Kids/Teens ] - Student-friendly articles and photos of famous black inventors and scientists.
  • The Black Inventor Online Museum [ Kids/Teens ] - A look at the great and often unrecognized pioneers in the field of invention and innovation.
  • Blacks in Technology, Past and Present [ Kids/Teens/Mature Teens ] - Profiles of seven African American inventors.
  • Elias Howe [ Kids/Teens ] - Credited with inventing the first practical sewing machine. This biography is from Scientific American Online.
  • Fact Monster; Inventions and Discoveries [ Kids ] - List of inventions from A to Z with dates, inventors, and links to the biographies of some of these inventors.
  • Great and Famous Inventors [ Kids ] - Elementary school students introduce some of the men and women whose creations changed the 20th century.
  • The Great Idea Finder [ Kids/Teens/Mature Teens ] - Provides invention facts, inventor profiles, innovation timeline, history articles, and trivia quiz.
  • Henry Ford - Ignorant Genius [ Teens/Mature Teens ] - Offers a biography and history.
  • Innovative Lives [ Kids/Teens/Mature Teens ] - Short profiles of men and women who are changing life today. From the Smithsonian.
  • The Invention Dimension: Inventor of the Week Archives [ Kids/Teens ] - Browsable and searchable collection of short, yet scholarly biographies geared toward students.
  • The Magnificent Safety Pin [ Kids/Teens ] - Walter Hunt is credited with inventing this, at least in modern times.
  • 19th Century African-American Inventors [ Kids/Teens/Mature Teens ] - Short articles on black inventors from Suite101.com.
  • Walter Hunt: Inventor of the Safety Pin [ Teens/Mature Teens ] - Read about Walter Hunt who invented lots of things, including the safety pin.
  • Black Women's Leadership Council - Works to advance professional development and address issues unique to Black women in the Xerox Corporation work place. Includes information about membership, news, scholarships, and general diversity at Xerox.
  • National Black Employees Association (NBEA) - Includes information about their annual conference.
  • African American Artists [ Kids/Teens ] - Profiles and examples of work by Bearden, Clark, Douglas, Hunter, Johnson, Lawrence, and Tanner.
  • African-American Inventors [ Kids/Teens/Mature Teens ] - Student-friendly articles and photos of famous black inventors and scientists and their inventions.
  • Alexander Crummell [ Kids/Teens/Mature Teens ] - Profile of the black nationalist and minister who was instrumental in the 1897 founding of the American Negro Academy.
  • Booker T. Washington [ Kids/Teens/Mature Teens ] - Born into slavery, Washington dedicated himself to education, became a teacher, then founded Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute in 1881.
  • Breaking Racial Barriers: African Americans in the Harmon Foundation Collection [ Kids/Teens/Mature Teens ] - One of the many white Americans who expressed interest in the achievements of black Americans during the Harlem Renaissance was real estate developer William E. Harmon. This collection of portraits and biographies is based on the works he amassed in the early part of the 20th century.
  • CNN - Black History Month [ Kids/Teens/Mature Teens ] - CNN profiles men and women who have made lasting contributions, ranging from literature, music, and the arts to science and technology.
  • Colin L. Powell [ Kids/Teens/Mature Teens ] - Distinguished Desert Storm hero and first African-American chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
  • Encarta: African American Inventors [ Kids/Teens/Mature Teens ] - Highlights a few of the remarkable African American men and women who changed the way people live their lives.
  • The Faces of Science: African Americans in the Sciences [ Kids/Teens/Mature Teens ] - Biographies of African Americans working in the science fields, ranging from geologists and astronomers to mathematicians and inventors.
  • Famous African-Americans [ Kids ] - Short biographies of inventors, musicians, educators, and others who have made a difference.
  • Free To Dance: Debbie Allen [ Kids/Teens/Mature Teens ] - Features the multifaceted performer who is known as an actress, dancer, singer, choreographer, director, and producer. From PBS.
  • George Crockett, Jr. [ Teens/Mature Teens ] - First African American attorney in the U.S. Department of Justice. Also intensely involved in the civil rights struggle in the South during the 1960s.
  • Henry Louis Gates Jr. [ Kids/Teens/Mature Teens ] - Scholar and education who heads Harvard's Afro-American Studies program.
  • James Weldon Johnson [ Kids/Teens/Mature Teens ] - Introduces the black intellectual and civil rights leader best known for his contributions to the world of literature.
  • Marian Anderson [ Kids/Teens/Mature Teens ] - Potrays the life of the singer who, at the peak of her career, was regarded as the world's greatest contralto.
  • Mary McLeod Bethune [ Kids/Teens/Mature Teens ] - Tells about the African-American educator who founded Bethune-Cookman College.
  • Miles Davis [ Kids/Teens/Mature Teens ] - Trumpeter and bandleader who played a major role in the transition from the hard, aggressive stance of Bop to the softer, more subtle side of jazz.
  • Muhammad Ali [ Kids/Teens/Mature Teens ] - Three-time world heavyweight boxing champion who tossed an Olympic gold medal into a river because he was disgusted by racism in America.
  • The Museum of Black Innovations and Inventions [ Teens/Mature Teens ] - A multimedia presentation that appears at educational conferences, schools, churches, colleges, and community organizations.
  • Nat King Cole [ Kids/Teens/Mature Teens ] - Black vocalist who left a permanent mark on the world of jazz.
  • Nat Love [ Teens/Mature Teens ] - Information on the life and adventures of the famous African-American cowboy.
  • Oprah Winfrey [ Kids/Teens/Mature Teens ] - Award-winning daytime television host who overcame numerous obstacles to achieve her current fame.
  • Sambo Jackson [ Kids ] - Tells how an accident resulted in ice cream.
  • Serena Williams [ Kids/Teens/Mature Teens ] - Photo and short biography of one of the top-ranked female tennis professionals in the world.
  • Spike Lee [ Kids/Teens/Mature Teens ] - Introduces the filmmaker known for tackling the toughest issues that relate to the black community and basking in the controversy that surrounds his creations.
  • Stamps on Black History [ Kids/Teens ] - Tells the stories of dozens of black men and women whose faces have appeared on U.S. postage stamps. Also includes interactive quiz, word puzzles, writing activities, crafts, and coloring pages.
  • Thurgood Marshall [ Kids/Teens ] - Brief profile of the first African-American to hold the coveted position of Supreme Court Justice.
  • Tiger Woods [ Kids/Teens/Mature Teens ] - Tells about the youngest golfer and only African American to ever win the U.S. Junior Amateur title.
  • Tindley, Charles [ Teens/Mature Teens ] - Brief biography on the composer of the song "We Shall Overcome" and generally considered the Father of American Gospel Music.
  • Voices from the Gaps: Angela Davis [ Teens/Mature Teens ] - Tells about UCLA teacher and Black Panther Party sympathizer who ended up on the FBI's most wanted list after guns registered to her were used in a courtroom shooting.
  • Wilma Rudolph [ Kids/Teens/Mature Teens ] - The only American woman runner ever to win three gold medals in the Olympic games.
  • Wynton Marsalis: Jazz Legend [ Kids/Teens/Mature Teens ] - Features the trumpeter and bandleader who became the first instrumentalist to win simultaneous Grammy awards as best jazz and classical soloist.
  • The African American Journey [ Kids/Teens ] - Tells the story of African Americans, detailing their journey from Africa to slavery, emancipation, and the struggle for civil rights. Includes biographies, a review of civil rights laws and legislation, and a look at the politics of protest. From World Book.
  • African-American History Month [ Kids/Teens/Mature Teens ] - Features profiles of famous African-American military leaders as well as other historical tidbits. From the U.S. Department of Defense.
  • Black Baseball [ Kids/Teens/Mature Teens ] - Short feature from Sports Illustrated and CNN traces the history of black baseball.
  • Black History Month [ Kids/Teens/Mature Teens ] - Includes myths about Black history as well as profiles of African-American historical figures, scientists, and inventors.
  • Black History Month [ Kids/Teens ] - Feature from Washington Post's KidPost includes a look at the observance itself, profiles of famous African-Americans, and a timeline of Black history.
  • Celebrate Black History Month [ Kids/Teens/Mature Teens ] - Profiles of prominent African-American personalities, ranging from Civil Rights Activist Malcolm X to Nobel Prize-winning author Toni Morrison.
  • Celebrating Black History Month at The Holiday Zone [ Kids/Teens ] - Includes highlights from the lives of select African-American leaders, art projects for children, and discussion starters.
  • CNN - Black History Month [ Kids/Teens/Mature Teens ] - Includes a timeline, links to related news stories, and an interactive quiz.
  • CNN In-Depth Specials - Black History Month 1999 [ Kids/Teens/Mature Teens ] - Quiz, game, sites, stories, and timeline. Also features in-depth articles about Dr. King and his influence, and what it means to be African.
  • Encarta's Black History Month [ Kids/Teens/Mature Teens ] - Series of articles and multimedia features celebrating the accomplishments of African-Americans.
  • The Encyclopædia Britannica Guide to Black History [ Kids/Teens/Mature Teens ] - Multimedia site includes a timeline, overview of the eras in black history, links to biographical sketches of dozens of well-known African-Americans, and historic audio and video clips.
  • Highlights of African American History [ Kids/Teens/Mature Teens ] - Celebrate some of the key roles African Americans have played in United States history. From Microsoft Encarta.
  • The Internet African American History [ Kids/Teens ] - Interactive quizzes test visitors knowledge of African-American history. Site offers profiles of Frederick Douglass, Harriet Tubman and other prominent African Americans.
  • Power to Learn: Black History Month [ Kids/Teens/Mature Teens ] - Features interactive tools and resources including a quiz and Q&A with experts.
  • Stamps on Black History [ Kids/Teens ] - Tells the stories of dozens of black men and women whose faces have appeared on U.S. postage stamps. Also includes interactive quiz, word puzzles, writing activities, crafts, and coloring pages.
  • African American Flavor - Soul food, Creole and Cajun, Low Country, African and Caribbean cuisine descriptions and recipes provided by Kraft Foods.
  • African American Soul Classic Recipes - Features a variety of recipes including Deviled Eggs, Mother-In-Law Pork Chops, Mississippi Fried Chicken and Sweet Potato Pound Cake.
  • African-American Soul Food - Recipes include Barbecued Pig's Feet, Butter Beans with Ham Bones and Okra, and Mustard Greens with Ham Hocks.
  • Chef Jaime's Soul Food Collection - Recipes include Crazy Meatloaf, Fried Catfish, Peach cobbler and Collards.
  • Cultural Diversity: Eating in America, African-American - Ohio State University Extension fact sheet providing basic information on the subject.
  • How To Cook Traditional Black American Dishes - Techniques for preparing Hoppin' John, Hush Puppies, Fried Pork Chops, Mashed Sweet Potatoes and Barbecued Spare Ribs.
  • Moo and Oink - Soul food side dishes including chitlins, black-eyed peas, smothered cabbage, and neckbone stew, from the barbecue and food store in Chicago.
  • Soul Cookin' Southern Style - Cookbook presentation with sample recipes for Fried Green Beans, and Tea Cakes.
  • Soul Food - Your Recipes - Heritage recipes such as Neck Bone Stew, and Spicy Corn Bread with Collard Greens, along with some Afro-Caribbean recipes.
  • Soul Food Cookbook - Traditional and modern soul food and African-American heritage recipes, including dishes with a Caribbean flavor.
  • Soul Food Online - Large number of recipes, with restaurant listings, and message board.
  • Soul Food Recipes - Collection includes Dinner Rolls, Mixed Greens and Baked Chicken.
  • Soul Food Recipes - Traditional soul food and African-American heritage recipes.
  • The Soul Food Site - Collection of soul food and African-American heritage recipes from appetizers to desserts, with a recipe swap message board.
  • Stamp on Black History: Cooking African American Style - Traditional recipes for soups, salads, vegetables, main dishes, casseroles, breads and desserts.
  • Yahoo! Groups African-American Recipe Exchange - E-mail group for exchanging soul food and heritage recipes.
  • The Association of Caribbean Women Writers and Scholars - Information about conferences, membership, etc.
  • Bibliography of Creative Writing in Trinidad and Tobago - Covers poems, prose, and plays by Trinbagonians living in the islands or abroad.
  • Brown University's Caribbean Literature - Part of Brown's impressive postcolonial literature web, with essays, bibliographies, and other research materials for a variety of Caribbean writers.
  • Caribbean Critics Web - Bibliographies and information about major Caribbean literary critics.
  • Caribbean Literature Research Web - A research site maintained by the University of Puerto Rico English department. Includes biographies, bibliographies, and book reviews related to writers and scholars from the Caribbean.
  • Caribbean Studies Association - Featuring information about the organization, its conferences, and its publications.
  • Russ Filman's Caribbean Literature - Provides information on many Caribbean writers, listing them by island of origin. Covers almost every non-Spanish speaking island.
  • Society For Caribbean Studies (UK) - Includes information about past and future conferences, papers from those conferences, links.
  • West Indian Literature - This is a reference list of literature by West Indian authors. The emphasis is on prose written in English, however some poetry has been included, as have some works that have been translated to English.
  • Writers of the Caribbean - Offers biographies, bibliographies, and links to information about some of the most prolific writers of the Caribbean. Maintained by a professor from East Carolina University.
  • General Information African American Biographies

    African American History

    Black History Month Exhibitions With Images and Articles: TIME: Celebrating Black History
    CNN: Black History Month 1999
    Black History Month (InfoPlease)
    Black History (Encyclopædia Britannica Guide)
    Celebrating Black History on the Web
    Black History Hotlist
    Sampling African America

    African American Culture

    Art1:


     
    Joseph Delany (1904-1991) Gallery   Joseph Delaney Online
    Terry Dixon (born 1969) Washington DC Artist. Abstract Expressionism with African 
              inspired symbolism. Paintings - mixed media. 
    Aaron Douglas  (1898-1979) 
    Image "Into Bondage", 1936, and text. Website of the exhibition Rhapsodies in Black: Art of the Harlem Renaissance, presented by the IniVA, London.
    Artcyclopedia [African-American Harlem Renaissance Painter, 1899-1979]
    Sir Jacob Epstein  (1880-1959)
    Image "Portrait Bust of Paul Robeson", 1928, and text. Website of the exhibition Rhapsodies in Black: Art of the Harlem Renaissance, presented by the IniVA, London
    Sam Gilliam (Painter, born in 1933) Painted draped abstract canvases. See Sam Gilliam 
              Looking at Painting (from KET TV, Kentucky) . Find out more about Gilliam
    Paul Goodnight
    Website of the artist. Includes artist biography, artist statement, limited editions, and open edition prints.
    Jonathon Green - Interactive site - South Carolina artist. Inspiration for his work comes
              from the Gullah community in which he grew up.
    Renee Green
    Includes an image, brief text, discussion, and artist statement. Highlights the artist's 1990 mixed media installation "Revue". Presented by the Post-Colonial Performance and Installation Art website.
    Artcyclopedia: Renee Green  [African-American Installation Artist]
    David Hammons [African-American Installation Artist, Born 1943]
    Information includes short biography, cultural context, discussion questions, medium, references and themes. Presented by Getty Education Institute for the Arts, ArtsEdNet.  
    Artcyclopedia: David Hammons  

    Rick Hyman
    "Migration of the African American Family". Online exhibit from Virginia  
              Museum of Fine Arts.
    Synthia Saint James
    Biographical information and images. Presented by »Africa: One Continent, Many Worlds« website.
    William H. Johnson  (African American 1901-1970) 
    Image "Self-Portrait with Bandana", 1935-38, and text. Website of the exhibition Rhapsodies in Black: Art of the Harlem Renaissance, presented by the IniVA, London.  Artcyclopedia: William Johnson -- Harlem Renaissance Painter
    Marie Johnson-Calloway  (African-American, Born 1920)
    Information includes short biography, cultural context, discussion questions, medium, references and themes. Presented by Getty Education Institute for the Arts, ArtsEdNet.
    Artcyclopedia: Marie Johnson-Calloway  
    Grace Jones
    Includes an image, brief text, discussion, and artist statement. Highlights the artist's 1985 "Performance in Paradise Garage". Presented by the Post-Colonial Performance and Installation Art website.

    Loïs Mailou Jones  (African-American Harlem Renaissance Painter, 1905-1998)
    Image "Les Fetiches", 1938, and text. Website of the exhibition Rhapsodies in Black: Art of the Harlem Renaissance, presented by the IniVA, London                                  Lois Mailou Jones on the Internet- Artcylcopedia

    Simmie Knox - born in 1935 in Aliceville, Ala - self taught-  first black painter to be
             commissioned for a presidential portrait. CBS News article - with photos  Biography 
    Jacob Lawrence  (African American Painter, 1917-2000) 
    Image "Dust to Dust (The Funeral)", 1938, and text. Website of the exhibition Rhapsodies in Black: Art of the Harlem Renaissance, presented by the IniVA, London.    Exploring Stories - Whitney Museum of Art    Webography (many links)

    Phillips Collection - Jacob Lawrence. View this site in flash or HTML (it is much quicker to load in html). This excellent site gives biographical information and presents some of his most noted works. Be sure to click on the hyperlinks with in the text. Has a nice section on teacher resources.
    Jacob Lawrence:Story Teller - Getty ArtsEdNet. Image Gallery
    Artcyclopedia- Links for Jacob Lawrence  

    Edmonia Lewis
    [African-American Sculptor, C.1845-1911]

    Glenn Ligon: Annotations
    [African-American Painter, born in 1960]
    The Detroit Institute of Arts  On Artcyclopedia

    Glenn Ligon
    Visual analysis of a work, biographical information and short bibliography. Essay by Jennifer Texeira, 1997.
    Kerry James Marshall [African-American Installation Artist, born in 1955] 
    Kerry James Marshall.  PBS biography  Online - Artcyclopedia
    Dean Mitchell - Florida born, Kansas City based artist - Watercolors and oils (work at Bryant 
              Galleries). See also  Hearne Fine Art - Stecker Fine ArtKeith Morrison   
              A distinguished artist, art educator, curator, art critic, and administrator, Keith 
              Morrison is dean of the College of Creative Arts at San Francisco State University. 
              Born in Jamaica  -- Morrison has exhibited his paintings and prints across the US
              and abroad, Colorful watercolors rich in symbolism

    Archibald J. Motley Jr.  (1891-1981)
    Image "Blues", 1929, and text. Website of the exhibition Rhapsodies in Black: Art of the Harlem Renaissance, presented by the IniVA, London  
    Artcyclopedia: Archibald Motley on the Internet
    O. Donald Odita, Nigeria
    Olu Oguibe's Guest of the Month.


    Olu Oguibe
    , Nigeria
    Artist, critic, poet. Professor of Art History including African and African-American Art at the University of South Florida, Tampa. Excellent website which provides an introduction on African American Art, essays, interviews and artists' profiles, a virtual gallery, bibliography, and more.
    John Outterbridge (African-American Assemblage Artist, Born 1933)
    Information includes short biography, cultural context, discussion questions, medium, references and themes. Presented by Getty Education Institute for the Arts, ArtsEdNet.  Acrtcyclopedia: John Outterbridge on the Internet
    Howardena Pindell (African-American, Born 1943) - Artcyclopedia
    Horace Pippen: Know the Artist (student web page)
    Pleasant (African American - born 1974). Figurative paintings and sculpture - Gestural in
               feeling. Email Pleasant for painting images you need for PowerPoint. Email me for
               images of wire sculpture (this offer is for art teachers only).
    Noah Purifoy  Home page.  See environment of sculptures Also art for sale. 
              Died in fire - March 8, 2004
    Faith Ringgold  (African-American, Born 1930) Artcyclopedia  
             PBS- African American World   PBS "A Day at the Met"  Nancy Doyle Fine Art - bio  
             Portrait of Faith Ringgold by Alice Neel (1977)
    Faith Ringgold Home page - Anyone Can Fly Art in Context 
    Alison Saar Artcyclopedia (African-American, Born 1956)
    Betye Saar Artcyclopedia (African-American Assemblage Artist, Born 1926)
    Betye Saar
    "Soaring Saar". An article about the assemblages of Betye Saar by Ann Elliott Sherman. From the Feb. 8-14, 1996 issue of Metro.

    William Edouard Scott
    (African-American Painter, 1884-1964) Artcyclopedia

    Lorna Simpson (African-American, Born 1960) Artcylcopedia
    Henry O. Tanner ( African-American Realist Painter, 1859-1937) Banjo Lesson Dox Thrash  (African-American Harlem Renaissance Printmaker, 1892-1965) 
            &nbsphttp://www.philamuseum.org/exhibitions/exhibits/thrash.shtml; See Dox Thrash Revealed Philadelphia Museum of Art
    Kara Walker (African-American, Born 1969) Artcyclopedia
    Nari Ward
    Project description, past work
    Carrie Mae Weems (African-American Photographer, Born 1953) Artcyclopedia
    Ellis Wilson  (African American Painter1899 - 1977) Site has summary of documentary,
             gallery of his work, biography. Lesson plans for secondary and elementary - 
             student examples. More about documentary. African American World PBS. Selected
             works at University of Kentucky Art Museum. Narratives: Ellis Wilson.Wilson, Madafo Lloyd Storyteller, performer, musician. Site has information about
              African  proverbs, African American folk tales, an introduction to storytelling as well
              as vocabulary. See if Madafo would work into your program of African studies.
    Hale Aspacio Woodruff [African-American Regionalist/Social Realist Painter, 1900-1980]
    Painter and printmaker.
    Purvis Young
    Artist's homepage. Includes biographical information, the text "The Unofficial Storyteller" by Carol Damian, information about the artist's video "Contemporary Urban Painter", and photos of installations and works.

    James A. Porter - "Father of African American Art History". African American educator, 
             lecturer, painter, administrator, critic and advisor.  ThinkQuest James A. Porter
             See more of Maryland's distinguished African Americans
    Okwui Enwezor

    Olu Oguibe's Guest of the Month.
    Maude Southwell Wahlman Professor of Ethnic Studies, Art Department, University of Central Florida. Curriculum vitae.


        *
          African American History

          Welcome to KnowYourBlackHistory.com, your online source for information about African American history and culture.

          KnowYourBlackHistory.com is dedicated to promoting the magnificent contributions that African Americans, and people of African descent have given to our society, and to the world.

          Unfortunately, African American history is often ignored by the mainstream educational system, and that is why there is an even greater need to make our African American history known, not just during Black History Month, but all year round. Learning about African American history provides us with a sense of knowledge, culture, pride, and inspiration that allows us to truly reach our potential.

          We at KnowYourBlackHistory.com believe that learning our history should be an enjoyable experience. We provide our information in a concise, accessible, and entertaining manner. We encourage you to try our interactive features like our daily quiz, where you can test your African American history knowledge.

          Our profile of the month highlights some of the most important figures in Black history, watch for new additions on a regular basis.

          Remember - Everyday is Black History Day!
        *
          Who Was Harriet Tubman?


          Harriet Tubman
          (1820?-1913)

          Harriet Tubman (born Harriet Ross), was an African-American woman who during her time performed many daring rescues that helped hundreds of slaves escape to freedom. She became the most famous leader of the Underground Railroad, a system of travel routes and safe houses that allowed slaves to escape to the Northern States and Canada.

          Harriet was born into slavery in the tiny village of Bucktown, in Dorchester County, Maryland, probably in the year 1820. The middle child of a family of eleven children, Harriet was exposed to the cruelty and injustice of the slave system at a very early stage of her life. At the age of five, she was sent to work in the house of her mistress and was expected to perform domestic chores without any guidance. Although she was only a child, her mistress would beat Harriet about her face and neck with a whip whenever she made a mistake.

          Her childhood, if it truly can be said that she had one, was spent working in the houses of different mistresses: cleaning, performing their chores, taking care of their babies, and absorbing their cruelty. These harsh experiences endured by Harriet as a young girl, would serve to forge in her a fierce spirit of rebellion that would ultimately set her free.

          As she grew older, her resistance became stronger, and she would refuse to learn certain tasks like weaving, because she did not want to work in the confinement of a house. Harriet preferred to work outdoors in the fields. Being in the fresh air of the countryside gave her a sense of freedom that she could never have working indoors.

          At about the age of twelve, her wish was granted, and from that point on she worked exclusively outdoors: cutting and hauling wood, plowing fields, and driving oxen. The chores she performed were tasks usually reserved for men, yet despite her slight five-foot tall frame, Harriet was able to perform them well, and she even became known for her physical strength.

          Working in the fields allowed Harriet to interact with other slaves. Through them she would hear the stories about slaves escaping to freedom by following the "North Star" to Canada. She became fascinated with the stories of uprisings and slave rebellions, and they were of great influence in helping her decide to make an escape.

          A crucial incident occurred in Harriet's life during her early teenage years. When she was about 13 years old, she interfered with an overseer to prevent another slave from being beaten. The overseer, in a fit of rage, struck Harriet on her head with a 2-pound weight and fractured her skull. It took several months before she eventually recovered, but she would continue to suffer complications from the injury throughout her life.

          This event became a turning point for Harriet as it dramatically increased her determination to become free, and it foreshadowed the great compassion that she would show for her fellow slaves.

          In 1844, at around the age of twenty-four, Harriet married John Tubman, a freed slave. She lived together with her husband for five years until she made her escape.

          In 1849, after the death of her master, Harriet Tubman escaped from slavery and went to Philadelphia via the Underground Railroad, without her husband.

          Long before her actual escape, she had made a connection with a white woman, a local abolitionist who gave her directions to the first safe house. She traveled exclusively at night, moving hundreds of miles through dense forests and swamp country. Despite the aid she received along the way, her success was largely due to her own initiative and resourcefulness.

          Upon experiencing freedom for the first time in her life, Harriet vowed that she would return to Maryland to help other people to escape. Knowing that her efforts would require money, Harriet worked part-time jobs until she had saved enough for her first mission. She made her first trip back shortly after Congress had passed the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850, which made it a crime for anyone to help a runaway slave. On her first return, she rescued her sister and her two children.

          Two years after she first fled, Harriet returned to Dorchester County to see her husband and take him back with her to the North. She then discovered that he was married to another woman, and he did not wish to leave her.

          In 1857, after freeing many of her brothers and sisters, Harriet was finally able to lead her father, Benjamin Ross, and her mother, Harriet Green, to freedom in Auburn, New York.

          During the Civil War, which lasted from 1861-1865, Harriet Tubman worked as a nurse, scout, and a spy, for the Union Army in South Carolina. Her efforts during this time were of great value to the North as she provided the army with crucial information that helped them to plan their attacks on the Confederate Army in the South. Harriet also acted as a liaison between northern soldiers and Blacks in the South, helping to recruit them to the Union ranks. She was well respected by the Union soldiers, and she received several official commendations by Union officers.

          After the war ended, she returned to Auburn, where she devoted her efforts to raise money for Black schools, and became involved in the struggle for women's rights.

          In 1908, Harriet established a home in Auburn for elderly and needy Black people, which became known as the Harriet Tubman Home. The people of Auburn built a plaque in her honor, and she lived there until her passing in 1913.

          In total, Harriet Tubman made an estimated 19 trips, and rescued at least 200 slaves. She never was caught, despite having a $40,000 bounty on her head, and she never lost a person on any of her missions. The reason for her success was her expert skill at masterfully planning each operation down to the finest detail. She made sure to plan for food, clothing, train tickets, and even carried a sedative for crying babies. The fact that she never lost a passenger is a testament to her fierce determination. She carried a gun and threatened to kill anyone who tried to turn back.

          Harriet Tubman was revered among her contemporaries. Her reputation for freeing slaves made her a legendary figure among the slave community. She was often compared to Moses, who in the Biblical story led the Israelites out of Egypt to freedom.

          To this day, her legacy stands as a shining example of courage, dedication, and compassion for humanity.
        *
          Queen Nzingha of Angola (1583-1663)

          Brilliant military strategist, charismatic leader, and a true Warrior Queen, all of these terms aptly describe the remarkable character of Queen Nzingha of Angola.

          Nzingha's rise to power occurred during the early 17th century in the kingdom of Ndongo, which is now the present day country of Angola, in South West Africa. She lived during a period when the Atlantic slave trade was steadily growing, a time marked by the increased intensity of slave trading and consolidation of power by the Portuguese in her region. Portugal had been a presence in Angola since the early 16th century.

          Starting with the forts they built along the coastline, the Portuguese gradually expanded their territory, as well as their control of the slave trade. They were able to do so by forming alliances with various local chiefs who supplied them with slaves in exchange for guns and other material items. One of these slave-trading chiefs was the King of Ndongo himself, Nzingha's own brother.

          Nzingha had strongly opposed her brother's participation in the slave trade. However, it was not until the Portuguese traders began to make heavier demands on the King for slaves, thereby reducing his own profit from the trade, that he decided to resist and declare war. The war between the Portuguese, and the Ndongo people lasted for several years until the Portuguese decided that a peace conference would be held for both sides to negotiate an end to the war. It was at this conference that Nzingha would display her immense pride, determination, and iron will, traits that the Portuguese would be forced to reckon with for the next thirty years.

          The conference was held in the city of Luanda in 1622. Nzingha, though not yet Queen, was the most ablest and uncompromising member of the royal delegate sent to represent the King. Despite the alleged purpose of the conference, to negotiate peace, the racist attitudes of the Portuguese were in full display. The governor only provided chairs in the conference room for himself and his councilors, in an attempt to force the future Queen to stand humbly before his presence. Nzingha and her people were unfazed by the governor's arrogance. Her attendants promptly rolled out the royal carpet for Nzingha, and then one of them went down on all fours and formed himself into a human throne for her to sit on.

          It was a move that spoke volumes not only about the fierce, and unbreakable spirit that she possessed, but also about the tremendous respect and devotion that her people had for her.

          In 1623, after the death of her brother, Nzingha became the Queen of Ndongo.

          The Portuguese had not respected the peace treaty signed at Luanda the year before, as they had continued their slave trading operations in Ndongo. Her first major move as Queen was to deliver an ultimatum to the Portuguese, demanding that they respect the terms of the treaty or else war would be declared. The Portuguese ignored her warning and so in that same year Nzingha went to war with them and commandeered a series of devastating strikes, defeating them in many battles.

          Nzingha was an incredibly strong and charismatic woman. She was dearly loved by the people of Ndongo, able to rally masses of them to listen to her messages. A brave general, she was known to personally lead her troops into battle, and she forbade her subjects to call her "Queen" preferring the masculine title of King. Yet her aggressive traits were balanced by her charming and engaging personality, which she used to her own advantages when forming alliances with other kingdoms.

          So clever was the Queen that she was able to take advantage of the Dutch arrival in Angola and form an alliance with them against the Portuguese. Certainly, the Dutch were not there as liberators of the Africans, they were merely competing against Portugal for a greater share of the slave trade. Still, Nzingha was wise enough to side with the foreigners to suit her own needs, a tactic she would use later on in her life by pretending to adopt Christianity.

          One of Nzingha's greatest acts as Queen occurred in 1624 when she declared all territory over which she had control to be Free Country. All slaves and reaching it from any region were forever free. This was to have a monumental impact, as thousands of slaves deserted Portuguese held areas to head for Nzingha's land, strengthening her armies in the process.

          Nzingha was perhaps the first Black Nationalist. By opening her territory to anyone escaping slavery, she transcended all the various ethnic and cultural differences of the people in the Angolan region. She saw that the common enemy was the Portuguese, who had been the masterminds of the slave trade and its devastating effect on her people for over one hundred years. Nzingha was well aware that the Portuguese used Black soldiers to fight their wars for them, and so she undertook a carefully organized attempt to infiltrate and destroy this use of Black soldiers by Europeans. She had several groups of her men wander back into Portuguese territory, and enlist in military service. Once her agents were established, they were able to convert whole companies of men to rebel against the Portuguese and join the cause of the Queen, taking with them the much needed guns and ammunition.

          The Portuguese were outraged at this seemingly unbeatable Black Queen who constantly thwarted their efforts to conquer all of Angola. Their tactics of divide and conquer were ineffective against her because there was so much patriotism and fanatical devotion towards her. They even tried to discredit Nzingha by formally declaring that she was the illegitimate ruler of Angola, and by "appointing" their own ruler King Phillip.

          In 1626, Nzingha's stronghold in the city of Cuanza was captured, and she was forced to retreat from her country. Her time away seemingly only made her stronger, for in 1627 she returned to her country at the head of a strong army and recaptured Cuanza, sending the puppet King Philip fleeing for his life.

          During her exile, Nzingha had become the Queen of the country of Matamba as well, and so she returned as the empress of two nations, more determined than ever to liberate her people. Despite several losses, including the capture and beheading of her sister by the hands of the Portuguese, Nzingha's spirit was never broken.

          She valiantly fought and held off the Portuguese control of Angola for over thirty years.

          Finally in 1659, Nzingha, now more than seventy-five years old and perhaps weary from the long years of struggle, signed a peace treaty with the Portuguese. The remaining years of her life were spent trying to reconstruct her nations, seriously depleted by all the years of conflict.

          She devoted her efforts to re-settling former slaves, and developing an economy of free men and women that could succeed without the slave trade.

          Nzingha passed away in 1663 at the age of eighty. Sadly, the massive expansion of the Portuguese slave trade and eventual conquest of Angola followed her death, as none of her successors possessed her indomitable spirit. Though she did not succeed in expelling the Portuguese from her country, her historical legacy is of great importance as she awakened the spirit of nationalism and Black unity among her people in resistance to European domination.

          Her legend would serve as an inspiration to the later resistance and anti-colonial movements that would occur throughout the West-Central African regions. To this day, her memory lives on among the oral traditions of the Angolan people who have not forgotten their Great Warrior Queen, Nzingha of Angola.
        *
          The Discovery Of America

          When Vasco Nunez de Balboa, a Spanish explorer, landed in South America in 1513 he found a small community of Black people already living in America. This fact brings convincing indication that it was Africans that discovered America and not Columbus as it has been said. Archeological excavations have also brought up evidence of this fact. They discovered pre-Columbian pottery with African facial appearance. They believe that it must have been West-Africans who sailed into the Atlantic Ocean and were brought to South America by strong streams. Christopher Columbus was informed about this practice when he stopped in The Cape Verde Islands. Columbus was looking for a shorter way to get to the Indies when islanders informed him about Africans setting off on small ships into the ocean going west. He attained confirmation of this scheme when he arrived in the Caribbean islands and found dark people who were already trading with the Indians. Columbus was told that the natives had already traded gold with black men coming from the ocean. He later on wrote in his observations that these Black men must have come from West Africa.

          African and Spanish explorers

          Before they were treated as slaves, Africans were part of expeditions and they were treated as valuable members of the crew. Many Africans participated in the adventures that follow the so-called discovery of Christopher Columbus to the Americas. When Balboa landed in America in 1513, he had with him 30 Africans that would later help him set the earliest route through Panama to the Pacific Ocean. Slowly Africans started working more and more for the Spanish. In 1519, under the orders of Hernando Cortes, 300 Africans helped him defeat the Aztecs. Africans helped many other rulers, such as Juan Ponce de Leon and Francisco Pizarro, by either exploring or by helping conquer different cities.

          
          Black Inventors

          In the early centuries, black people made significant contributions toward science and technology. The belief has persisted for centuries among whites, that Africans lacked scientific and technological sophistications. Listed here are some of those accomplishments, which unfortunately weren't always recognized or acknowledged.

          Ironsmithing :(16th Century)

          Ironsmithing technology originated in West Africa. When the slave trade started, Africans brought the technology with them to the South. African Americans were highly valued in the South as Blacksmiths. They created effective tools along with a niche for decorative architecture and were regarded as "skilled Iron Craftsmen". African Americans who worked in white shops were given the freedom to inscribe African motifs in gates and fences that revealed African influences.

          Thomas Jennings (1791-1859) "Receives first Patent by African American"

          Thomas Jennings was the first African American to receive a Patent. As the owner of a New York dry cleaning store, Jennings patented a process for cleaning clothing. He later used the money he earned with his invention to buy his family out of slavery. Active as an abolitionist, Jennings published petitions that advocated the end of slavery in New York.

          Norbert Rillieux (1800-1894 ) "Revolutionizes the Sugar Industry"

          Norbert was born as a free African American. He revolutionized the sugar industry when he invented the multiple-effect evaporator for refining sugar. His father, an engineer and owner of a plantation, quickly realized his son's brilliant mechanical ability and sent him to Paris to study engineering. In Paris he taught and wrote scholarly papers on the steam engine and steam processes that were well received by European scientists. Norbert later returned to the United States to get funding for his new invention which was operated on a Louisiana plantation in 1845. Norberts invention was a huge success. He was able to produce finer white sugar and provide a huge reduction in cost and labor. His system was later adopted by factories from Cuba and Mexico and it's steam principles found a much broader application in manufacturing industries for condensed milk, soap gelatin and glue products.

          Henry Boyd "Buys his freedom"

          Henry Boyd invented a bed where the wooden rails screwed into both the headboard and footboard, giving the bed a firm structure compared to other beds in the early 19th century. Henry produced this technique along with his carpentry skills to purchase his freedom in 1826. He later opened his own company using his bed frame design as his foundation. Boyd tried to have his invention patented by a white man, but was unsuccessful. African Americans weren't allowed to patent their products. Boyd cleverly stamped his name on every bed frame he made to ensure authenticity to his clients. Boyd was very successful and employed a staff of 40-50 employees.

          Elijah McCoy "The REAL McCoy"

          Elijah McCoy (1843-1929) invented a mechanism to continuously oil train and ship engines.  It was quickly adopted by railroad and shipping lines. Many ineffective imitations were created and as a result had many businessmen asking "Is this the REAL MCCOY". McCoy born in Canada and educated in Scotland was unable to find a job as an engineer in the United States. Taking a job as a Fireman, he noticed that the fireman's duty of oiling the train's engine while stationary added tremendously to the length of train trips. McCoy's first invention, "a lubricating cup" patented in 1872 eliminated the necessity of shutting down the machine periodically. McCoy later acquired 57 other patents for devices designed to streamline the automatic lubrication process of machinery. He is also credited with inventing the ironing board, lawn sprinkler and a graphite lubricator.

          Granville T Woods "The Black Edison"

          Granville T Woods - also known as the Black Edison because he competed successfully with the celebrated Thomas Edison to market a telegraph system. Woods lost a struggle with Alexander Graham Bell to market an advanced telephone transmitter for which Woods had received a patent. Without the required funds to market his device, Woods was forced to sell it to the Bell Telephone Company. He later acquired the funding to form his own company called "Woods Electrical Company". Some of his inventions include "air brakes" and an egg hatching machine. Woods felt his career was hampered by the effects of racism and later went on to write a story in the Cosmopolitan magazine suggesting that he had descended from "full blooded savage Australian aborigines" and not African Americans. Woods thought his inventions would not be recognized if it was known that he was an African American.
        *
          African Americans in the Military

          The War of Independence played a significant role in creating the American Nation and thus instilled the highest respect on those who served. Many African Americans risked their lives for a nation who had so easily removed their claim to citizenship and freedom. In a way - many African Americans believed that in fighting for their country they were in fact fighting for their rights of freedom as well.

          Many American leaders were weary of using blacks in the military thinking that they would in turn demand equal rights or worse that they would turn their weapons on the very people who had denied them so much for so long. In addition to their profound patriotism, African Americans threw themselves into the defense of their nation and in many respects pioneered desegregation among many American Institutions.

          Many colonies rejected the use of African Americans in the military and even though African Americans had served the Continental Army and assisted in securing American Independence, the Enlistment Act of 1792 limited the right to serve in the national militia. "Each and every free able-bodied white male citizen of the respective States, resident therein, who is or shall be of the age or 18 years, and under the age of 45" was given priority above African Americans.

          The US Army didn't enlist African Americans after the Revolutionary War but the US Navy did - they had a shortage of able white men. In September of 1814, General Andrew Jackson issued a proclamation that blacks were deprived of participation in defending their beautiful nation and thus called upon all Free Colored Inhabitants of Louisiana to come forth. However, the free African Americans were to be placed in separate regiment and commanded by white officers - supposedly free from white prejudice. Shortly after the war was won and everyone returned home General Jackson reneged on his promise and all blacks were ordered to go home to their "Masters".

          The US Army returned to its "no African Americans" policy after the war of 1812 but they still employed them as cooks and seamen.  When the Civil War began in 1861 blacks rushed forward but were turned away.

          On June 28, 1861 - Tennessee was the first state to pass a law for the enlistment of "all male free persons of color between the ages of 15 and 50 years".

          On July 17, 1862, Congress amended the Enlistment Act of 1795 giving the president authority to enlist African Americans - but Lincoln still refused to act on Congress's recommendation.

          August 4, 1862 - General Sprague of Rhode Island asked for Black men to enlist as soldiers in the state militia. Other appeals followed. By the wars end approximately 186,000 Blacks had served in the Union Army with 30, 000 casualties. President Lincoln issued his Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863 which included a provision for including African Americans to enlist.  The War Department began to aggressively recruit African Americans.

          During the war black troops were paid less than white troops. On July 14, 1864 the Attorney General declared he was in favor of equal pay for Black Soldiers.

          During the Civil War, approximately 16 African Americans were awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor.

          African American women played an important role in World War I. They organized camps for the men about to leave for Europe and many served as nurses in the Field Medical Supply Depot in Washington, D.C.

          On September 17th 1940 - the NAACP's executive secretary, Walter White, and acting secretary of the National Urban League met with President Franklin Roosevelt to present a 7 Point Program for military mobilization. It demanded that Blacks be trained as Army Air Corps pilots and Black women be admitted to the Red Cross and to army and navy nurse units.

          The first American Hero of World War II was an African American. When the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor on December 7th 1941 - Dorie Miller, a messman on the USS Arizona rose to the occasion by coming up from the ship's galley and taking over an antiaircraft gun on his own he shot down 4 Japanese airplanes before the Arizona sank.  He was awarded the Navy Cross for his heroism.  That was not enough to make him a navy gunner. He later died during World War II during Japanese attacks on the Liscome Bay where he still worked as a messman.

          July 19, 1941 - Black pilots were trained at the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama where they received flying instructions at the Booker T. Washington campus.  On March 7, 1942 the first cadets received their wings. The Tuskegee Airmen flew their first combat mission in North Africa on June 2, 1942 and broke barriers for blacks in aerial combat. The flight school was not limited to men - Willa Brown; trained pilots and Janet Waterfod Brogs was a registered nurse - both women graduated from the program.

          In 1944 two ships were launched with all Black personnel. The USS Mason and PC 1264 - attack submarines sailed with an all black crew. On June 3rd 1944 the SS Harriet Tubman was also launched.

          Martin Luther King Jr. strongly opposed the Vietnam War. After 1965 he worked really hard to persuade other civil rights leaders and the American public to join him - stating it was morally wrong. On April 4, 1967 King made his famous antiwar speech at Riverside Church in New York City and led a huge antiwar rally a few days later. His stance caused discomfort among some in the Civil Rights Movement who feared it would cause a backlash or divert attention away from their cause.

          Other prominent Blacks opposing the war were:
              o Julian Bond who was denied his seat in the Georgia legislature because of his antiwar views.
              o Muhammad Ali - who argued he had no quarrel with the Vietnamese and claimed exemption due to his Muslim religion.

          Other distinct Heroes:
              o Staff Sergeant Clifford Sims - threw himself on a booby-trap bomb without hesitation to shield his men from the blast - killing him - he was awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor for giving his life to save his men.
              o Colin L. Powell (b. 1937) - Vietnam - on patrol he stepped on a punji stake - a sharpened stick hidden in holes in rice paddies and was severely injured. Despite his tremendous pain he lead his men to their destination. He was awarded the Bronze Star for his persistence and devotion to duty.
              o Colin L. Powell - later showed his bravery again when his helicopter crashed in the Vietnam jungle - being the only one not knocked unconscious and injured himself he dragged his injured men from the smoldering aircraft. He received the Soldier's Medal for his act of bravery.

          The importance of Black history lies in its ability to educate, inspire and uplift all people of African descent, and to enlighten the rest of humanity about our cultures. It is a source of strength, cultural pride, and inspiration that we can draw upon to improve our nations, our communities, and our lives. When we begin to understand the heights we have achieved in the past, and the many great obstacles we have overcome, we start to realize our true potential as a people.

          The fact that many aspects of our society, our technology, and our civilization, were invented by people of African descent, is something that we all need to know. How many of us know that the concept of a blood bank, an element so crucial to saving lives, was developed by Charles Drew, an African-American? How many of us know that the first version of the modern traffic light was invented by an African-American man named Garret Morgan? How about the invention of the gas mask, a device without which we could not fight fires safely, also created by Morgan? Perhaps even more profoundly, how many of us know that Black African people are the oldest people on the earth, and that they were responsible for the creation of the first major civilization in the world, Ancient Egypt?

          Unfortunately, many people of African descent remain unaware of the achievements made by their ancestors. The basic education about Black history should be a part of all of our children's lives from an early age, not only in school, but also in the home.

          It should also continue to be developed, advanced and promoted at the highest levels of education, just as the studies of other cultures have been promoted.

          The purpose of Black history is not simply just a matter of Black people being able to memorize historical information.

          The purpose is for every one of us to develop that fundamental understanding that we do have a history to be proud of, and to acknowledge, accept, and embrace it into our lives.

          Through the processes of slavery, colonialism, and racism, Africans all over the world have been denied their true heritage. Some have even been lead to accept, whether consciously or subconsciously, the racist notions that Black people have never, and never will achieve anything.

          The truth and knowledge of Black history provides the antidote to the hundreds of years of racist education and false teachings, to which we as a people have been subjected. It serves to re-establish a positive self- identity for all people of African descent throughout the entire world.

          When we learn about our history, we learn to love ourselves, believe in ourselves, and rely on our own abilities. Black history can be a powerful force that can benefit us all, and by embracing it, we can lay a solid foundation for the next generation of Black people.

          A generation that can look to it's past with great pride, and to its future with great hope.

        * African American Newspapers The 19th Century CD-ROM - Searchable database contains a comprehensive collection of nineteenth-century newspapers.
        * African American Pamphlets - The Daniel A. P. Murray Pamphlet Collection presents a review of history and culture spanning almost one hundred years. Among the authors represented are Frederick Douglass, Booker T. Washington, Ida B. Wells-Barnett, Benjamin W. Arnett, Alexander Crummel, and Emanuel Love.
        * African American Resources at the Cincinnati Historical Society Library - Guide to 20th Century African American individuals, organizations and topics from the Greater Cincinnati area. Find books, articles, photographs and manuscripts.
        * African American Resources at the Maryland State Archives - An archived history of black people in the state Maryland.
        * African American World - Presents the broad range of the black experience in the United States, from the Harlem Renaissance to the ongoing debate over affirmative action.
        * A brief biographical sketch of several key figures in African American history.

          African Americans in History

          African Americans have played a vital role in the history and culture of their country since its founding. An important part of the curriculum at the Institute for African American Studies is devoted to creative research on the lives and work of prominent African Americans and to placing them within their cultural context. On this page you will find brief biographical sketches of several key figures in African American history.

          Benjamin Banneker

          1731-1806

          Although he spent nearly his entire life on one farm, Banneker had an important influence on how African Americans were viewed during the Federalist and Jeffersonian periods of American history. Born in Baltimore County, Maryland, Banneker was the child of a free black father. He had little formal education, but he became literate and read widely. At 21, he built a clock with every part made of wood—it ran for 40 years. After the death of his father, he lived on his father's 100-acre farm, largely secluded from the outside world, with his sisters. Self taught in the fields of astronomy and surveying, he assisted in the survey of the Federal Territory of 1791 and calculated ephemerides and made eclipse projections for Benjamin Banneker's Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland and Virginia Almanack and Epheremis, published during the years 1792-1797. He retired from tobacco farming to concentrate wholly upon his studies. He corresponded with Thomas Jefferson and urged Jefferson to work for the abolition of slavery.
          Sojourner Truth

          1797-1883

          Sojourner Truth, a nationally known speaker on human rights for slaves and women, was born Isabella Baumfree, a slave in Hurley, New York, and spoke only Dutch during her childhood. Sold and resold, denied her choice in husband, and treated cruelly by her masters, Truth ran away in 1826, leaving all but one of her children behind. After her freedom was bought for $25, she moved to New York City in 1829 and became a member of the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church. In 1853, she helped form a utopian community called "The Kingdom," at Sing Sing, New York, which was soon disbanded following the death and possible murder of its leader. Truth was implicated in the scandal but courageously fought the falsehoods aimed at her.

          After the death of her son, she took the name Sojourner Truth to signify her new role as traveler telling the truth about slavery. She set out on June 1, 1843, walking for miles in a northeasterly direction with 25 cents in her pocket, and rested only when she found lodging offered by either rich or poor. First she attended religious meetings, then began to hold meetings herself that would bring audience members to tears. As she logged mile after mile, her fame grew and her reputation preceded her. Truth's popularity was enhanced by her biography written by the abolitionist Olive Gilbert, with a preface written by William Lloyd Garrison. In 1864, she was invited to the White House, where President Abraham Lincoln personally received her. Later she served as a counselor for the National Freedman's Relief Association, retiring in 1875 to Battle Creek, Michigan.
          Harriet Jacobs

          1813-1897

          Known primarily for her narrative Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl: Written by Herself, Harriet Jacobs was a reformer, Civil War and Reconstruction relief worker, and antislavery activist. In Incidents, Jacobs describes her life as Southern slave, her abuse by her master and involvement with another white man to escape the first, and the children born of that liaison. Also described is her 1835 runaway, her seven years in hiding in a tiny crawlspace in her grandmother's home, and her subsequent escape north to reunion with her children and freedom. During the war, Jacobs began a career working among black refugees. In 1863 she and her daughter moved to Alexandria, where they supplied emergency relief, organized primary medical care, and established the Jacobs Free School—black led and black taught—for the refugees. After the war they sailed to England and successfully raised money for a home for Savannah's black orphans and aged. Moving to Washington, D.C., she continued to work among the destitute freed people and her daughter worked in the newly established "colored schools" and, later, at Howard University. In 1896, Harriet Jacobs was present at the organizing meetings of the National Association of Colored Women.
          Alexander Crummell

          1819-1898

          Alexander Crummell, clergyman and author, was born in New York City to free parents. Crummell was a descendant of West African royalty since his paternal grandfather was a tribal king. He attended Mulberry Street School in New York, and in 1831 he was enrolled briefly in a new high school in Canaan, New Hampshire, before it was destroyed by neighborhood residents. In 1836 Crummell attended Oneida Institute manual labor school. He was received as a candidate for Holy Orders in 1839 and applied for admission to the General Theological Seminary of the Episcopal Church, but was not admitted because of his color. He was eventually received in the diocese of Massachusetts and ordained to the diaconate there. After study at Queen's College, Cambridge, England, he went to Africa as a missionary, becoming a professor of mental and moral science in Liberia. While there, Crummell became widely known as a public figure; in 1862 he published a volume of his addresses, most of which had been delivered in Africa. After spending 20 years on that continent, Crummell returned to the United States and became rector of St. Luke's Church, Washington, D.C., and later founded the American Negro Academy.
          Harriet Tubman

          1821-1913

          Heralded as the "Moses" of her people, Underground Railroad conductor Harriet Tubman became a legend during her lifetime, leading approximately 300 slaves to freedom during a decade of freedom work. Denied any real childhood or formal education, Tubman labored in physically demanding jobs as a woodcutter, a field hand, and in lifting and loading barrels of flour. Although she had heard of kind masters, she never experienced one, and she vowed from an early age that she would strive to emancipate her people. In 1844, at age 24, she married John Tubman, a freeman, and in the summer of 1849 she decided to make her escape from slavery. At the last minute, her husband refused to leave with her, so she set out by herself with only the North Star to serve as her guide, making her way to freedom in Pennsylvania. A year later, she returned to Baltimore to rescue her sister, then began guiding others to freedom. Travel became more dangerous with the passage of the Fugitive Slave Law, but she was not deterred, despite rewards offered by slaveowners for her capture totaling $40,000.

          Tubman's heroism was further highlighted by her activities between 1862 and 1865, when she was sent to the South to serve as a spy and a scout for the Union Army. Her gift for directions and knowledge of geography remained an asset as she explored the countryside in search of Confederate fortifications. Although she receive official commendation from Union officers, she was never paid for the services she rendered the government.

          After the war she returned to Auburn, New York, working to establish a home for indigent aged blacks, and in 1869 she married her second husband, a Union soldier. She became involved in a number of causes, including the women's suffrage movement. Her death brought obituaries that demonstrated her fame throughout the United States and in Europe. She was buried with military rites, with Booker T. Washington serving as funeral speaker.
          Booker T. Washington

          1856-1915

          Born into slavery, Booker T. Washington was the most prominent spokesperson for African Americans after the death of Frederick Douglass. Much more conciliatory than Douglass, Washington sought—but never demanded—social betterment for African Americans through economic progress. As a boy, he picked Washington as his last name. After emancipation his mother and stepfather moved to West Virginia, where Washington worked in the coal mines but attended school whenever possible. In 1871, Washington returned to Virginia and enrolled in the Hampton Institute. After graduation in 1875, he first taught in West Virginia and then studied at the Wayland Seminary before returning to teach at Hampton. In 1881 he left Hampton to begin the single most important undertaking of his life: founding the Tuskegee Normal School in Alabama. Washington, his small staff, and their students worked as carpenters to build Tuskegee. In its first year of operation Tuskegee had 37 students and a faculty of three; when Washington died in 1915, Tuskegee had 1,500 students, a faculty of 180, and an endowment of $2,000,000.

          African Americans have criticized Washington for what they saw as his overly-deferential attitude to his white benefactors and for his position that university education was basically irrelevant for blacks, who should concentrate on vocational training. This, along with his acceptance of segregation, increasingly led W.E.B. Du Bois and other leaders to speak out against Washington. In October 1915 Washington collapsed while delivering a speech in New York City and was hospitalized. He asked to be returned home to die and was taken back to Tuskegee, where he died the next day at home on his beloved campus.
          George Washington Carver

          1860-1943

          One of the best known agricultural scientists of his generation, Carver was born into slavery near Diamond Grove, Missouri. Slave raiders kidnapped Carver and his mother when he was a six-week old infant, but his owner allegedly ransomed back the boy with a $300 prize race horse. Although Carver had to work and live on his own while still a boy, he managed to finish high school and became the first African American student to enroll at Simpson College in Indianola, Iowa. He then put himself through the Iowa Agricultural College by working as a janitor, earning a B.S. in 1894 and an M.S. in 1896 in agricultural science. The same year, Carver joined Booker T. Washington at the Tuskegee Institute, directing Tuskegee's agricultural research department continuously until his death in 1943. At Tuskegee, Carver concentrated on persuading Southern farmers to end their virtually exclusive reliance on the cotton farming that had leached the soil of nutrients, producing increasingly poor crops. Carver encouraged farmers to diversify and plant sweet potatoes and peas. In order to make these crops more profitable, Carver did extensive research, producing more than 300 derivative products from the peanut and 118 from the sweet potato. In 1923 Carver won the Spingarn award, the highest annual prize given by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. In 1938 he took $30,000—virtually his entire life's savings—and founded the George Washington Carver Foundation to continue his work after his death. When he died in 1943 the rest of his estate went to the foundation. He was buried beside his great friend and mentor, Booker T. Washington, on the Tuskegee campus.
          Ida Wells-Barnett

          1862-1931

          Born to a slave cook and a slave carpenter, Ida Wells was a prominent antilynching leader, suffragist, journalist, and speaker. At age 16 she took over the raising of her siblings after the death of her parents to smallpox. With the help of the black community, Wells attended Rust College, afterward finding employment as a teacher.

          In May 1884 Wells sued and won a case against a railroad for forcefully removing her from a segregated ladies' coach. The incident served as a catalyst to a more militant Wells. As part owner and editor of the Memphis Free Speech and Headlight, she spent much of her time writing about the poor conditions for black children in local schools. After the 1892 lynching of three of her friends, she was diligent in her antilynching crusade, writing Southern Horrors: Lynch Law in All Its Phases. In 1893 Wells carried her fight for equality to the Chicago World's Fair, then remained in Chicago and helped spawn the growth of numerous black female and reform organizations. Wells marched in the 1913 suffrage parade in Washington, D.C., and was one of two African American women to sign the call for the formation of the NAACP. She married Ferdinand Barnett, owner of the Chicago Conservator, in 1895, and continued her "crusade for justice" until her death in 1931.

          View the text of Well's 1902 letter to the members of the Anti-Lynching Bureau.
          W.E.B. Du Bois

          1868-1963

          Born in Great Barrington, Massachusetts, W.E.B. Du Bois became the most respected and effective spokesperson for the full rights of African Americans in the decades before World War II. In 1888 Du Bois earned an A.B. at Fisk University, where he had his first experience of overt racial prejudice. Returning to Massachusetts, he earned his M.A. at Harvard and then spent two years studying at the University of Berlin before becoming the first African American to earn a Ph.D. from Harvard. Du Bois taught at Wilberforce University, the University of Pennsylvania, and Atlanta University. Throughout his life Du Bois combined an illustrious academic career with his work for full rights for African Americans. He is perhaps best known for his work in founding the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People in 1909 and helping it to become the country's single most influential organization for African Americans.

          Du Bois argued for the creation of a black elite which would win social equality for African Americans by winning the respect of powerful educated whites. Frustrated by the slow progress in civil rights at home, he increasingly looked abroad, espousing the cause of Pan-Africanism, for which he won the NAACP's highest honor, the Spingarn award, in 1920. But in 1934 he resigned from the NAACP to protest their goal of accommodation with white society. Increasingly disillusioned with life in the United States, he visited Europe and the Soviet Union, where he was awarded the Lenin Peace Prize in 1959. In 1961 he announced that he had joined the Communist Party and emigrated to Accra, Ghana, at age 93. He died there two years later.
          Mary McLeod Bethune

          1875-1955

          One of the most widely known African American women of the twentieth century, Mary McLeod Bethune was an educator, political advisor, and civil rights leader. After graduation from the Scotia Seminary in 1895, she taught at the Haines Institute in Augusta, Georgia, then at Kendall Institute in Sumter, South Carolina, where she met and later married Albertus Bethune. In October 1904, Bethune founded the Daytona Normal and Industrial Institute for Negro Girls in a small rented cabin, and continued to develop the school over the next two decades. When white hospitals denied service to black patients and training for black residents and nurses, Bethune founded McLeod Hospital to serve the community and to provide training for black physicians and nurses. By 1922, the school had over 300 students and a staff of 25, later becoming the Bethune-Cookman College. As well as working for education, Bethune founded the Circle of Negro War Relief in New York City during World War I, was vice president of the Commission on Interracial Cooperation, and served as president for two terms in the National Association of Colored Women, advising the Coolidge and Hoover administrations on African American issues. In 1935, Bethune founded the National Council of Negro Women and served as president until 1949. She retired from public life on her seventy-fifth birthday in 1950, settling in her home on the campus of Bethune-Cookman College, and over the next five years received 12 honorary degrees.
          Jessie Fauset

          1882-1961

          Jessie Fauset, essayist, editor, and novelist, displayed in her work the complexities of life for literary artists during the Harlem Renaissance and the Great Depression. Her career as a teacher provided the stability of income and permanence that allowed her to write her novels and essays.

          As a college student at Cornell University, Fauset had started corresponding with W.E.B. Du Bois, editor of the NAACP's journal The Crisis, and later submitted articles to the journal. After completing her master's degree in French in 1920, she was invited to become The Crisis's literary editor, holding the job until 1923 and afterward becoming the managing editor. As both a foster mother to and a product of the Harlem Renaissance, Fauset wrote more novels than any other black writer from 1924 to 1933. The black characters in her novels reflect the "Talented Tenth" and her own experiences with the hard-working, self-respecting black middle class. Fauset left The Crisis in 1927 to achieve a more ordered life as a French teacher at De Witt Clinton High School. She continued to teach in New York until 1944 and later taught as a visiting professor in the English Department at Hampton Institute.
          Zora Neale Hurston

          1891-1960

          Born in the small all-black town of Eatonville, Florida, Zora Neale Hurston was to become, for 30 years, the most prolific African American female author in the United States. Despite this, Hurston and her work drifted into obscurity until her rediscovery in the 1970s. Much of this neglect can be attributed to the controversy that always seemed to surround this independent and free-spirited woman.

          Protected from racial prejudice as a child and inspired by her mother, Hurston grew into an outspoken, eccentric, and racially proud woman, one who chose to write about the positive side of black Americans. After moving to Washington, D.C., she attended Howard University and first published her writing in 1921. Hurston moved to New York City in 1925 and became one of the members of the Harlem Renaissance. After attending Barnard College on a scholarship and completing her undergraduate work in 1927, she returned to Florida to collect black folklore and was awarded a Julius Rosenward Fellowship in 1934 for her collection of folklore. During the 1930s, her novels Jonah's Gourd Vine and Their Eyes Were Watching God were published. Her career produced seven books and more than fifty shorter works from autobiography to folklore to music and mythology. After World War II, her fortunes declined until her death in 1960, a penniless inmate at the Saint Lucie County Welfare Home. Although she was believed married three times, she died alone, and her grave remained unmarked until novelist Alice Walker located it in an overgrown Florida cemetery.
          E. Franklin Frazier

          1894-1962

          Sociologist and educator, E. Franklin Frazier was born in Baltimore, Maryland. In 1916 he graduated cum laude from Howard University with a B.A. degree and accepted a position as mathematics instructor at Tuskegee Institute. He received his M.A. degree from Clark University in 1920 and his Ph.D. from the University of Chicago in 1931. A grant from the American Scandinavian Foundation enabled him to go to Denmark to study "folk" schools. From 1922 to 1924, Frazier taught sociology and African studies at Morehouse College in Atlanta, then served as director of the Atlanta School of Social Work until 1927. He was on the faculty at Fisk University from 1931 until 1934, after which he became head of Howard University's department of sociology, a post he held until named professor emeritus in 1959. Frazier was a prolific writer; he was the author of several books including the controversial Black Bourgeoise. His numerous awards included a 1940 Guggenheim Fellowship and the John Anisfield Award.
          James Langston Hughes

          1902-1967

          One of the original writers of the Harlem Renaissance, Langston Hughes was born in Joplin, Missouri. In 1921 he began studies at Columbia University but left after a year, going off to work on a freighter and traveling that way to Africa, then living in Paris and Rome. Returning to the U.S., he graduated from Lincoln University in 1926, publishing his first book of poetry, The Weary Blues, that same year. Also in 1926, Hughes published a critical essay, "The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain," which became a defining piece for the Harlem Renaissance movement. During the next four decades he continued to write in a number of forms—novels, poetry, short stories, plays, autobiography, and nonfiction. In 1942 he began a column in a Chicago newspaper that introduced his character, "Simple," an African American Everyman who wittily comments on the ironies besetting black people's lives. He eventually published five volumes of his "Simple Stories." Amazingly prolific, admirably versatile, and a man capable of hearty humor as well as bitter criticism, he fell in and out of favor with the public, but the best of his work promises to survive.
          Charles Drew

          1904-1950

          The man who discovered the modern processes for preserving blood for transfusions, Charles Drew grew up in a solid but poor family in a Washington, D.C. ghetto. His intelligence and athletic skill won him a scholarship to Amherst College, where he was captain of the track team, starting halfback on the football team, and an honors student. For two years following graduation, Drew taught and coached at Morgan College in Baltimore, earning money to attend the medical school at McGill University in Montreal. There he became increasingly interested in the general field of medical research and in the specific problems of blood transfusion. After graduation from McGill in 1932, Drew did his three-year residency at Montreal General Hospital before joining the faculty of Howard University, where he was eventually appointed head of surgery.

          During the last decade of his life, Drew continued his pioneering research into the separation and preservation of blood. When the U.S. entered World War II, he was appointed head of the National Blood Bank program. Furious at the official government policy that mandated whites' and African Americans' blood would be given only to members of their respective races, he resigned from his post and returned to Howard. In 1944 he became chief of surgery at Freedmen's Hospital in Washington, D.C., where his presence encouraged other young African Americans to enter the field of medicine. Drew died in a car crash in 1950.
          Margaret Walker

          Born 1915

          Poet, novelist, and teacher Margaret Walker spent a culturally rich southern childhood that influenced her poetic and artistic vision. Her father, a scholar and lover of literature, instilled in his daughter a love of American and English classics, the Bible, and poetry. Her mother played music, especially ragtime, and read poetry. The family household included her maternal grandmother, who told the children folktales. One story stayed in Walker's consciousness and became a part of her famous novel, Jubilee.

          The Depression served as the context for the 1934 publication of her first poem, and the beginning of her association with the WPA Writer's Project, where her experience was enriched by her contact with other writers and artists. In 1939, Walker finished her first novel, Goose Island, which was never published. A collection of poetry was published by Yale University Press in 1941, also winning the Yale Younger Poet's Award. The same year, Walker began teaching, and her long career took her to Livingstone College, West Virginia State College, and Jackson State University. Since her retirement from teaching, Walker has continued to write and has undertaken rigorous speaking tours.
          Malcolm X

          1925-1965

          One of the most controversial figures in the civil rights movement, Malcolm X's career was cut short by an assassin. Born Malcolm Little, his minister father died when he was 6. After a childhood spent in institutions and foster homes, Malcolm headed east, settling in Boston and supporting himself with odd jobs and pimping. In 1943 he moved to New York where he began to lead an increasingly marginal life. After receiving a 10-year sentence for burglary in 1946, he was transformed in prison, becoming a follower of Elijah Muhammad's Nation of Islam movement. Paroled in 1952, he was ordained as a minister, taking the name Malcolm X. His militant stance and depiction of whites as "blue-eyed devils" won him considerable press coverage and a good deal of suspicion from the white community; in many ways he seemed the antithesis of Martin Luthor King, Jr., who preached non-violence. In 1963 he formed the Organization of Afro-American Unity, and in 1964 he made a pilgrimage to Mecca and converted to orthodox Islam.

          At the time of his death, Malcolm X seemed to be moderating his hostile view of whites. Nonetheless, he spoke in the months before his death of his fear that he might be assassinated by opponents in the Nation of Islam or by the U.S. government. His assassin was apparantly a member of a dissident black group, though mystery still remains about the event.

          Download a sound file from an early Malcolm X speech. Running time :10
          128K .aiff format
          Martin Luther King, Jr.

          1929-1968

          The most influential leader in modern civil rights, Martin Luther King, Jr. was born in Atlanta, Georgia. His father was a Baptist minister, providing a strong religious tradition for King. He attended the Atlanta public schools and was graduated with his A.B. from Morehouse College in 1948 when he was 19 years old. He went on to Crozer Theological Seminary and graduated in 1951 at the top of his class, going from there to Boston University for his Ph.D. There he met and married Coretta Scott in 1953. By then an ordained minister, King took the pastorate of the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama, and quickly became involved in the civil rights movement. He soon found himself in the forefront of a boycott of Montgomery's segregated buses, which led to a Supreme Court decision in 1956 against Alabama's segregation laws. Following this triumph King was made president of the newly formed Southern Christian Leadership Conference, committing his life to nonviolent activism and bringing the civil rights movement to the forefront of American public life.

          Between 1960 and 1965, King continued to lead numerous demonstrations and protests on behalf of civil rights, leading the 1963 March on Washington where he delivered his most quoted speech, "I have a dream. . . ." In 1964 he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. Martin Luther King, Jr. was shot and killed on April 3, 1968 in Memphis, Tennessee; he was there to support striking sanitation workers. His death devastated the nation.

          Download a sound file from King's "I Have a Dream" speech. Running time 1:03
          689K .aiff format
          Lorraine Hansberry

          1930-1965

          Lorraine Hansberry's life as celebrated playwright and activist artist earned her the tile of "Warrior Intellectual." When she died at age 34, her testimonial was demonstrated by the number of eulogies given by prominent figures in government, the arts, and the civil rights movement.

          Born into an affluent family in Chicago, Hansberry grew up among such family friends as Paul Robeson, Duke Ellington, and Jesse Owens. Her interest in theater was sparked during her years at the University of Wisconsin, but in 1950 she left college for New York and "an education of a different sort." She worked as a writer for Freedom, Paul Robeson's radical black newspaper, and covered such issues as colonial freedom, equal rights for blacks, the conditions of Harlem schools, and variants of racial discrimination. She married Robert Nemiroff, a white student whom she met on a picket line at New York University, where he was a student.

          Lorraine Hansberry left Freedom in 1953 to concentrate on her play writing. earning her position in American letters with the production of A Raisin in the Sun in 1959, becoming the first black woman to have a play on Broadway and the first African American to win the New York Drama Critics Circle Award. Her success revitalized black theater, enabling other blacks to get their plays produced. Politically active throughout her short life, Hansberry worked to abolish the House Un-American Activities Committee, served on a panel to meet with Attorney General Robert Kennedy about the racial crisis, and was instrumental in civil rights.
          Colin Powell

          Born 1937

          Born and raised in New York City, Colin Powell would go on to become one of the country's best known figures during Operation Desert Storm, the U.S.-led United Nations offensive against Saddam Hussein's Iraq in 1990-1991. Upon graduation from City University of New York in 1958, Powell received a second lieutenant's commission and became a career army officer, serving with distinction in Vietnam. Rising through the ranks and increasingly responsible commands, from 1987 to 1989 he was a presidential assistant for national security in the Reagan administration. As such, he was the highest ranking African American in the administration. In 1988 he was nominated to become one of only ten four-star army generals. His responsibilities included the command of all army personnel serving in the mainland United States and the defense of the mainland in the event of enemy attack. During the Reagan years he advised the president at summit conferences in both Moscow and Washington, D.C. In 1989 he became the first African American to serve as chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, a position he held until he retired from the army in 1993. Upon retirement he was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom.
          Charlayne Hunter-Gault

          Born 1942

          Charlayne Hunter-Gault and Hamilton Holmes were the first two black American Students to attend the University of Georgia in January 1961. Students rioted to protest. Hunter-Gault says of the experience, "If you've ever been in the middle of a riot or the eye of a hurricane, you know it's very calm. That is exactly how I felt the night of the riot." Hunter-Gault knew at the age of twelve that she wanted to be a journalist, and despite the oppressive racial climate she encountered at the University of Georgia, she stayed and earned her B.A. in journalism in 1963.

          After graduating from college, Hunter-Gault went to work for the New Yorker magazine, and in 1967 she received a Russell Sage Fellowship to study social science at Washington University. Later she went to Washington, D.C., to cover the Poor People's Campaign, and in 1968 she accepted a position with the New York Times. Over the years Hunter-Gault has received numerous awards, including the New York Times Publishers Award, two National News and Documentary Emmys, and the George Foster Peabody Award, given to her by the University of Georgia for the documentary "Apartheid's People." Presently she is a journalist on PBS television.
          August Wilson

          Born 1945

          Despite never finishing high school, August Wilson holds the distinction of having twice won the Pulitzer Prize, for plays depicting the African American experience: Fences and The Piano Lesson. Wilson set out to create a cycle of plays on the African American experience, concentrating on the twentieth century. His first play, Ma Rainey's Black Bottom, set in the 1920s, won the New York Drama Critics Circle Award, and his Joe Turner's Come and Gone, set in 1911 and focusing on black migration to the North, was voted the best new play in 1988 by the New York Drama Critics Circle. While many of his plays have opened in New Haven, Connecticut, all have moved on to long New York runs and to countless productions elsewhere. Wilson is also founder of the Black Horizons Theater Company.
          Carole Moseley-Braun

          Born 1947

          In 1992 Moseley-Braun was elected a Senator (D.) from Illinois, becoming the first African American woman to sit in the U.S. Senate and only the second African American since Reconstruction to be a Senator. The daughter of a Chicago police officer, Moseley-Braun received a law degree from the University of Chicago and worked in the U.S. Attorney's Office, where she won the Special Achievement Award. In 1978 she was elected to the Illinois House of Representatives, where she was voted Best Legislator each of the ten years she served. In 1988 she became the first African American to hold high office in Cook County when she was elected Cook County Recorder of Deeds, an important stepping stone to her Senate race.
          Cynthia A. McKinney

          Born 1955

          One of the strongest voices for modern black interests in the Georgia's state legislature has long been J. E. "Billy" McKinney, a civil rights activist who first served in 1973. Fifteen years later his daughter, Cynthia, a political scientist who had taught at Clark Atlanta University and Agnes Scott College, a century-old woman's college in DeKalb County, also won a seat in the state House. Together they became the only father-daughter legislative team in the country. Cynthia McKinney brought to her post the same commitment to defending minority interests her father had; she was just 10 when the Voting Rights Act was passed and she has recalled that, as a child, she often rode on her father's shoulders as he walked in civil rights marches. She won a seat on the Georgia legislature's redistricting committee and helped to craft the two new black-majority districts. In 1992 McKinney ran as a Democrat for the right to represent one of the districts she had helped create, the Eleventh. She won with 73% of the vote and was later reelected to a second term.

          Selected Bibliography:

          Barone, Michael & Ujifusa, Grant. The Almanac of American Politics 1996. Washington, DC: National Journal Inc., 1995.

          Low, W. Augustus. Encyclopedia of Black America. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1981.

          Salem, Dorothy C. African-American Women: A Biographical Dictionary. New York & London: Garland Publishing, 1993.

          Smith, Jessie Carney, ed. Notable Black American Women. Detroit, MI: Gale Research Inc., 1992.

          Smith, Sande, ed. Who's Who in African-American History. Greenwich, CT: Brompton Books Corp., 1994.

          Truth lecture poster
        * Book chronicling the work of African American pioneers who broke social and racial barriers on Wall Street.
          A Slow Walk up Wall Street for Blacks
          Author Gregory Bell discusses their history in capitalism's citadel, the opportunities today, and what the future holds

               
             
             



          Few Americans know that black slaves helped build the wall after which Wall Street -- the narrow thoroughfare that cuts through New York's financial district -- is named, says author Gregory Bell in his book, In the Black: A History of African Americans on Wall Street (John Wiley & Sons, 2002). The log wall that the Dutch had raised in the mid-17th century to fend of the British is long gone. But history confirms the early involvement of blacks in shaping Wall Street, Bell says.

          However, only recently have a number of blacks gained entry into the clubby world of Wall Street firms. Some have even risen to the top. As CEO, Ken Chenault has been running financial-services powerhouse American Express since April, 2001, and E. Stanley O'Neal is poised to take the helm of Merrill Lynch, the No. 1 U.S. brokerage, in 2004. Earlier this year, Richard Parsons became CEO of AOL Time Warner, the Internet and media behemoth that's one of the nation's most closely watched corporations.

          Still, the Street has few black players, says Bell, whose father, Travers Bell Jr., founded the brokerage firm Daniels & Bell, which in 1971 became the first black-run company to buy a seat on the New York Stock Exchange. Today, securities transactions by black-owned firms still represent less than 1% of Wall Street's business, Bell writes.

          The 24-year-old New York native, who has a degree in history from Oberlin College, believes Wall Street could be in his own future, especially if he decides to go to business school. For the time being, he's mulling over new book ideas involving blacks in politics or business. BusinessWeek Online reporter Billy Cheng recently chatted with Bell via e-mail about the strides blacks have made on Wall Street, as well as the obstacles they still face. Edited excerpts follow:

          Q: Your book points out that no African-American company was ever a member of the NYSE until 1971, when Daniels & Bell -- the firm founded by your father -- joined. Why did it take so long for a minority-run firm to become a NYSE member?
          A: It is sad that it took so long for African Americans to be a part of Wall Street in general. Traditionally, progress in the industry lagged behind strides made in other professions. Back then, without the tools like the Internet or financial networks to bring it to the masses, Wall Street was a rich man's game, an esoteric industry.

          African Americans in general lacked exposure to the business. And even if they were fortunate enough to have the knowledge, few had the money to invest. The result was a severe lack of participation in the industry. In 1966, The New York Times reported that there were only 12 black stockbrokers at NYSE member firms. Just 12. There are more people on a baseball team.

          So, it was rare to find an African American who had the knowledge and experience to know what to do with a seat on the NYSE. And it was even rarer to find an African American with that knowledge who had the capital to buy a seat, which before the 1970s recession was a few hundred-thousand dollars. Lack of access to capital has been an historic problem for black businesspeople and still is today.

          For [Daniels & Bell co-founder] Willie Daniels and my father, it took about a year and a half of persistence to secure financing. Luckily, they were able to persuade people like Dan Lufkin, co-founder of DLJ [Donaldson, Lufkin & Jenrette], to help with their cause. And as a result, they made history. Sadly, there were a number of talented, ambitious people who were not as fortunate.

          Q: How have things changed today, if at all? And what do you think contributed to that change?
          A: There are two answers to this question, depending on one's perspective. Compared to decades ago, so much progress has been made. Merrill Lynch, the biggest brokerage, hired its first three black brokers around 1965. They were the only three African Americans out of about 2,500 account executives.

          Now, Stan O'Neal is designated to become CEO of a major Wall Street firm. Thirty-five years ago, that was not a reasonable goal for an African American on Wall Street or at any firm. The success of people like O'Neal and Ken Chenault fills me with hope.

          At the same time, there's a long way to go. Securities transactions by all black-owned firms account for less than 1% of all transactions on Wall Street. I just heard of a study that reported that about 0.1% of the top 200 Fortune 500 companies' pension funds went to minority-owned firms. Diversity within the upper ranks of major firms is still woefully low.

          Q: What led to the end of Daniels & Bell?
          A: Well, Daniels & Bell was considered by most to be the pioneering black investment bank, particularly in helping to open up the municipal bond market. A lot of that credit, if not all of it, went to my father [Daniels left the firm early on, in the mid-1970s].

          However, the problem with having a company identified with one person is that clients tend to depend solely on that one person. So when he suddenly passed in 1988, at the age of 46, the firm was left with a few question marks. One, he didn't have a succession plan in place for a business without him. Two, clients began calling up and saying, "We didn't hire the firm of Daniels & Bell. We hired Travers Bell."

          Within a few months, articles began surfacing about the firm, and how it was losing its hold on core businesses like municipal finance. And the burden was sort of thrown on my family, who inherited the company to develop new businesses. As a smaller company, there is less room for error. And a few bad business decisions led to the firm closing its doors in 1994.

          Q: Gary Johnston, founder of online magazine BlackMenInAmerica.com, says with a level playing field, black men excel. Do you think that the playing field can ever be fully leveled?
          A: The idealist in me, the part of my mind that is full of hope and optimism for a better tomorrow and a brighter future, believes that a level playing field can be achieved. I think that every businessperson has to have some hope of equality, and that one will be equally rewarded for work.

          At the same time, one of the lessons I have learned with my research is how much the present and future are fueled by the past. And sadly, the history of America is of a land that failed to achieve the ideals it has preached. And we are still dealing with the problems caused by the past. As the famous analogy goes, one can't take the chains off a person who has been shackled for years, put him on the starting line next to someone who has always been free, and say run, and think that it is a completely fair race.

          Q: You mentioned that African Americans were largely distrustful of business in the '60s. How have African-American attitudes towards Big Business changed, if at all?
          A: I think that without question, there was distrust of Big Business, or in this case Wall Street. Wall Street paid little attention in those days to black businesses, black investors, or the talented African Americans who would have done well if given the chance.

          I think that has changed a great deal. The industry has improved its attitude toward social issues, in that Wall Streeters of today are much more accepting of social differences than their grandfathers and great-grandfathers were.

          One thing that my generation has benefited from is the exposure to successful, ambitious black businesspeople. As an African American, my generation has legacies to draw from, to be inspired by, that were not as available decades ago. There is greater exposure to Big Business, and I think that many African Americans have realized that we need to go beyond [owning] the mom-and-pop shops and take our fair share of the economic pie.

          Q: In the past, would African Americans trying to get into Wall Street, in essence, be burning the candle on both ends? Would they face criticism and rejection both from Wall Street and their community?
          A: There was some resentment in the early stages of this history. When a now-defunct firm called F.L. Solomon was convinced by an ambitious black broker to open a branch in Harlem in 1950, it closed three months later, and one of the reasons given was that the community did not trust the "Jim Crow" office. But I think the resentment came as a result of Wall Street being a foreign business.

          Today, I think that such resentment is hardly there. I don't think any community looks down on an African American for simply for choosing to work on Wall Street. I think they only look down on successful African Americans if they have made it on Wall Street but fail to use that knowledge and other power to give back to the community. So I think that today, it is not the act of going to Wall Street that people examine, but rather what one does after achieving success in the business, and if that success is used to help others.

          Q: Ken Chenault of American Express has said being black became a type of social tool for him, and that being distinctly visible in the boardroom could be used as an advantage. To what extent do you believe that's true?
          A: I believe that is very true. Anytime a person is a "first" or an "only," they are going to draw significant attention. When my father's firm became the first black-owned member firm of the New York Stock Exchange, it received a lot of attention from the press and peers. That wouldn't have happened if Daniels & Bell was a white-owned firm.

          So, being black in a field where the overwhelming majority is not black does make a person very visible. The only thing a person can control is their own performance, and if the spotlight is indeed going to be brighter, one must accept it and leverage it for some good. So if they perform well, their contributions will be very visible. And as is obvious by his career, Chenault delivers.

          Q: What do you see as the primary factor that excludes African Americans from full participation in the economy? What are the signs that things are changing for the better?
          A: Well, the primary factor is race. Decades ago, the obstacles were formed for the most part by racism. Now, it is not always racism, but often simple social differences.

          In major firms, a lot of promotions are decided by who you know, and who your mentor is. Who you know often depends on commonality [i.e., what college your father went to, what golf clubs you are part of, etc.], and, traditionally, African Americans were locked out of such clubs and networks.

          For black businesses, a lack of access to capital has been a problem, and historically Wall Street has overlooked investing opportunities in black communities. As Wall Street has become more international in the last decade or so, I have often felt that it was overlooking opportunities in America itself, specifically in black businesses, which often provide great returns because they are undervalued by the market. Black people's money is green, too.

          Q: If you look ahead 25 years, where do you think the African-American community will be vis-à-vis the economy?
          A: I look at the future as an era full of opportunity and prosperity for African Americans. I am not saying that the challenges of today will suddenly disappear, but history has shown that our progress in American business is inevitable.

          Former State Treasurer of Connecticut Frank Borges once said to me that "talent is equally distributed, opportunity is not." As opportunities increase, so will the success of black businesses and African Americans in Corporate America. I can't wait for the day when an African American is named CEO of a Fortune 500 company and race isn't mentioned in any of the articles. It would no longer be the exception, because it would be happening so frequently.